Abstract

We describe a simple scheme, which we call the Raman smart pump, to allow for the achievement of flat gain over broad bands with backward-pumped Raman amplification. The proposed method, based on time-division multiplexing, also removes all interaction among the various pump wavelengths and allows for dynamic gain control through simple electronic means.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Hasegawa, Appl. Opt. 23, 1095 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. F. Mollenauer and K. Smith, Opt. Lett. 13, 675 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Dougherty, F. X. Kartner, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 20, 31 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. R. Grant has submitted a paper called “Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple,” to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
  6. R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.
  7. See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. Hasegawa, Appl. Opt. 23, 1095 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M. D.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Dougherty, D. J.

Garbuzov, R.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grant, A. R.

A. R. Grant has submitted a paper called “Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple,” to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, Appl. Opt. 23, 1095 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Islam, M. N.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Khalfin, V.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Kim, I.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Komissarov, A.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Koren, U.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maiorov, M.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Menna, R.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Miller, B. I.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer and K. Smith, Opt. Lett. 13, 675 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

Todorov, S.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Tsekoun, A.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

Young, M. G.

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Hasegawa, Appl. Opt. 23, 1095 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

See, for example, I. Kim, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, L. L. Buhl, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. D. Chien, T. L. Koch, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, and C. A. Burrus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

A. R. Grant has submitted a paper called “Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple,” to IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Garbuzov, R. Menna, A. Komissarov, M. Maiorov, V. Khalfin, A. Tsekoun, S. Todorov, and J. Connolly, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper PD-18.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic schematic of the Raman smart pump; POL. COMB., polarization combiner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain curve and pump weighting factor for the frequency-swept scheme (Raman smart pump). The weighting factor gives the relative amount of time that the (constant power) pump spends at a given frequency. Note the extremely flat gain across a distance of more than 8 THz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time dependence of the Raman pump frequency that yields the weighting factor shown in Fig. 2 that yields the Raman gain that is flat over 8 THz.

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