Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that a grating outcoupler used for complex beam shaping (spot-array generation) can produce unintentional optical feedback that severely disturbs the integrated in-plane laser that illuminates the coupler. Simulations show that these outcouplers, in contrast to conventional collimating or focusing outcouplers, tend to produce high levels of feedback in spite of the detuning used to suppress feedback. Further, this feedback is focused to high intensity in the laser gain medium. This focused light acts as a seed for the nonlinear self-focusing that causes wave-front distortion and filamentation, which degrades the beam quality.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.
  10. M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, and A. Larsson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5738 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, and A. Larsson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Backlund, J.

Bengtsson, J.

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, and A. Larsson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

Carlström, C.-F.

Chow-Chong, P.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

Eskin, S.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Killius, K.-J.

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kristjánsson, S.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

Lang, R. J.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Backlund, J. Bengtsson, C.-F. Carlström, and A. Larsson, Appl. Opt. 38, 5738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

Li, M.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Major, J.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P.

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, M.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modh, P.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

Nishihara, H.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Obrien, S.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parke, R.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, N.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uemukai, M.

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D.

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, M. Uemukai, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lang, A. Hardy, R. Parke, D. Mehuys, S. Obrien, J. Major, and D. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, J. Bengtsson, M. Li, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1570 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Feng, M. Li, P. Chow-Chong, P. Marshall, S. Eskin, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1366 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Uemukai, M. Miyata, N. Shimada, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, P. Modh, and A. Larsson, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, P. Modh, M. Uemukai, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, Proc. SPIE 3626, 190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Modh, N. Eriksson, S. Kristjánsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2000 Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N. J., 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 868–869.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawings of the unstable-resonator laser with the integrated spot-array generating grating outcoupler. The zoom illustrates how the grating outcoupler is divided into cells in which the lines are dislocated relative the lines in other cells to create the desired spatial phase distribution of the outcoupled light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Camera images, at two drive currents, of the outcoupled light at the image plane. Left, images of the spot-array generating GCSEL; right, images of the single-spot focusing GCSEL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflected power as a function of incident wavelength for the outcouplers. Dotted line, the emission wavelength of 971 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated intensity distributions of the light reflected back from the outcouplers. Top to bottom: collimating outcoupler, focusing outcoupler (1.5 mm above the waveguide), and waveguide hologram that produces the spot array (4 mm above the waveguide). The intensity plots are individually normalized for best illustration.

Equations (1)

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ϕ=ϕinc+4π/ΛΔ,

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