Abstract

A widely tunable and high-resolution spectrometer based on a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser was used to explore sub-Doppler transitions of iodine molecules in the wavelength range 523–498 nm. The wavelength dependence of the hyperfine transition linewidth of iodine was mapped out in this region, and the narrowest linewidth was 4 kHz near 508 nm. The hyperfine-resolved patterns were found to be largely modified toward the dissociation limit. The observed excellent signal-to-noise ratio should lead to high-quality optical frequency standards that are better than those of the popular 532-nm system.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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Errata

Wang-Yau Cheng, Lisheng Chen, Tai Hyun Yoon, John L. Hall, and Jun Ye, "Sub-Doppler molecular-iodine transitions near the dissociation limit (523-498 nm): errata," Opt. Lett. 27, 1076-1076 (2002)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-27-12-1076

References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2708-01 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Cheng and J.-T. Shy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 30, 523 (1994); and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

A. N. Goncharov, M. N. Skvortsov, and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. B 51, 108 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

J. Vigue, M. Broyer, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Phys. 42, 937 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. Ezekiel and R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

Borde, Ch. J.

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Broyer, M.

J. Vigue, M. Broyer, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Phys. 42, 937 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Camy, G.

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Chebotayev, V. P.

A. N. Goncharov, M. N. Skvortsov, and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. B 51, 108 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-Y.

Dahlstrom, C. E.

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Decomps, B.

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Denman, C. A.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Descoubes, J.-P.

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M. L.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

S. Ezekiel and R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas de Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode 14800–20000 cm-1 (Editions CNRS, Paris, 1985).

Goncharov, A. N.

A. N. Goncharov, M. N. Skvortsov, and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. B 51, 108 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

Hale, C. P.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2708-01 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, G. R.

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Hobbs, J. W.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Lehmann, J. C.

J. Vigue, M. Broyer, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Phys. 42, 937 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas de Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode 14800–20000 cm-1 (Editions CNRS, Paris, 1985).

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2708-01 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 30, 523 (1994); and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Shy, J.-T.

Skvortsov, M. N.

A. N. Goncharov, M. N. Skvortsov, and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. B 51, 108 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steinfeld, J. I.

J. I. Steinfeld, Molecules and Radiation (MIT Press, New York, 1986).

Swirbalus, R. A.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Urbina, C. J.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Vigue, J.

J. Vigue, M. Broyer, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Phys. 42, 937 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G. J.

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

Weiss, R.

S. Ezekiel and R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2708-01 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. N. Goncharov, M. N. Skvortsov, and V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. B 51, 108 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. R. Hanes and C. E. Dahlstrom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 362 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (2)

J. Vigue, M. Broyer, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Phys. 42, 937 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ch. J. Borde, G. Camy, B. Decomps, and J.-P. Descoubes, J. Phys. 42, 1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 30, 523 (1994); and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. D. Levenson and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Ezekiel and R. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 91 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2708-01 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. J. Carrig, J. W. Hobbs, C. J. Urbina, G. J. Wagner, C. P. Hale, S. W. Henderson, R. A. Swirbalus, and C. A. Denman, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper WC12.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas de Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode 14800–20000 cm-1 (Editions CNRS, Paris, 1985).

J. I. Steinfeld, Molecules and Radiation (MIT Press, New York, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Part of the experimental setup that controls the laser frequency for the I2 spectrometer: PD, photodiode; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; BS, beam splitter; other abbreviations defined in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical spectra of molecular I2 hyperfine transitions from 523 nm to 500 nm. (a), (b), (c) MTS, 273-kHz modulation frequency; (d) FMS, 6-MHz modulation frequency. The quoted12 line strengths are (a) 80, (b) 79, (c) 55. The time constant is 5 ms for (a)–(c) and 100 ms for (d). Length of I2 cell, 8 cm; vapor pressure, 4.12 Pa.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Three typical curves of zero-power transition linewidth (HWHM) versus pressure. (b) Wavelength dependency of linewidth: *, wavelength standard P13430, a3 at 514.673 nm4; **, measured by Nd:YAG laser; ***, measured by He–Ne laser.14

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical FMS S/N of a hyperfine transition of R86570 at 508.060 nm. Laser frequency stabilization with this discrimination slope will lead to a projected (in)stability of 1.6×10-13 at 1 s, or 1×10-14 at 1 s for a 120-cm-long I2 cell.

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