Abstract

We have built a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, based on a Linnik-type interference microscope, illuminated by a white-light thermal lamp. The extremely short coherence length of the illumination source and the large aperture of the objectives permit resolution close to 1 µm in three dimensions. A parallel detection scheme with a CCD camera provides cross-section xy image acquisition without scanning at a rate of up to 50 Hz. To our knowledge, our system has the highest resolution demonstrated to date for OCT imaging. With identical resolution in three dimensions, realistic volume rendering of structures inside biological tissues is possible.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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2002 (1)

2000 (4)

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bizheva, K. K.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Dums, and D. Boas, in Waves and Imaging Through Complex Media, P. Sebbah, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, L.

Boas, D.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Dums, and D. Boas, in Waves and Imaging Through Complex Media, P. Sebbah, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Bourquin, S.

Chak, A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Coleno, M.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Dum, A. K.

Dums, A. M.

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Dums, and D. Boas, in Waves and Imaging Through Complex Media, P. Sebbah, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, F. G.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schunen, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schunen, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Kartner, F. X.

Kobayashi, K.

Lebec, M.

Leitgeb, R.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schunen, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malakzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Monterosso, V.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Owen, G.

Park, B. H.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schunen, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Salathé, R. P.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C. E.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schunen, J. S.

Seitz, P.

Sivak, M. V.

Srinivas, S.

Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Vabre, L.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wallace, V. P.

Wang, X.

Wong, C. K.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and F. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. K. Bizheva, A. M. Dums, and D. Boas, in Waves and Imaging Through Complex Media, P. Sebbah, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), p. 277.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interference microscope, which is based on a Michelson interferometer with identical water-immersion microscope objectives in both arms. The interference images are recorded by a CCD camera. PZT, piezoelectric transducer; Out., sinusoidal output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured longitudinal responses of the complete system. The FWHM is 1.3 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D reconstruction of a Xenopus laevis tadpole eye by means of 300 tomographic images. The volume is 360 µm×360 µm×200 µm. E, exterior of the eye; C, cornea; CR, crystalline lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of tomographic images of the tadpole eye at different depths: (a) cornea, (b) crystalline lens surface and the beginning of the exterior of the eye, (c) exterior of the eye and the crystalline lens, (d) back of the crystalline lens. Field of view, 360 µm×360 µm. Exposure time, 1 s.

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