Abstract

We report electrically pumped, cw laser action near 405 nm from Nd3+-doped δ-alumina nanopowders. To our knowledge, this is the first report of stimulated emission from the high-lying F2-excited states, achieved through feedback from strong elastic scattering of light over transport path lengths shorter than half a wavelength.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan, A. Cordova-Plaza, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and H. J. Shaw, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 140 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. W. Anderson, Philos. Mag. B 52, 505 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.
  6. G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnenans, in Spectral Intensities of f–f Transitions, K. A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring, eds., Vol. 25 of Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, New York, 1998), pp. 101–264.
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 206.

2001 (2)

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

P. W. Anderson, Philos. Mag. B 52, 505 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, Philos. Mag. B 52, 505 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, B.

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Binnenans, K.

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnenans, in Spectral Intensities of f–f Transitions, K. A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring, eds., Vol. 25 of Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, New York, 1998), pp. 101–264.
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cao, C. Q.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cordova-Plaza, A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Fan, T. Y.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 206.

Gorller-Walrand, C.

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnenans, in Spectral Intensities of f–f Transitions, K. A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring, eds., Vol. 25 of Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, New York, 1998), pp. 101–264.
[CrossRef]

Hinklin, T.

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, R. M.

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Lenth, W.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macfarlane, R. M.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, A.

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, S. C.

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Silversmith, A. J.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thareja, R. K.

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G.

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

Williams, G. R.

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. X.

J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. K. Thareja and A. Mitra, Appl. Phys. B 71, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mater. Sci. Forum (1)

R. M. Laine, T. Hinklin, G. Williams, and S. C. Rand, Mater. Sci. Forum 344–346, 500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. B (1)

P. W. Anderson, Philos. Mag. B 52, 505 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. R. Williams, B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, Phys. Rev. A 65, 013807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3948 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4524 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnenans, in Spectral Intensities of f–f Transitions, K. A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring, eds., Vol. 25 of Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (Elsevier, New York, 1998), pp. 101–264.
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CTuG5.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), p. 206.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CL spectra of Nd:δ-Al2O3 nanoparticles ϕ=27 nm at I=3.3 µA and I=16.9 µA at 8 kV, showing intensity reversals near 25,000 cm-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Identification of F2 emissions to singlet state P21/2 of Nd3+. Top curve, CL including F2 multiplet emission; bottom curve, photoluminescence excluding F2 emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Voltage dependence of CL spectral peaks in the 25,000cm-1 region. Features above 25,000 cm-1 grow rapidly up to 5 kV and then quench. Features below 25,000 cm-1 are absent until 5 kV. The splitting between these groups is labeled Δ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current dependence of ultraviolet and visible CL intensities of the F25/2 and F27/2 states at 8 kV. All curves (but one) quench rapidly above 3 µA, where intensity on the F25/2F49/2 transition undergoes an abrupt change in slope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminescent output at 4 and 8 kV in Nd:δ-Al2O3. The current range is greater at 8 kV than at 4 kV because of extended linear grid control. Inset, penetration depth versus voltage, calculated with a low-energy Monte Carlo routine.

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