Abstract

We present a novel scheme with which to detect small ultrasonic surface displacements by use of a photochromic polymer instead of a photorefractive material as an adaptive beam combiner in a two-wave mixing geometry. Poly(methyl methacrylate) is doped with a derivative of zinc tetrabenzoporphyrin that possesses a long-lived triplet state that can be efficiently populated in a reversible manner. The resulting dynamic hologram consists of local absorption and refractive-index gratings, which can process speckled beams reflected from rough surfaces. We believe that this is the first use of a local nonlinear medium for adaptive homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3233 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Blouin and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 932 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).
  6. L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Blouin and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 932 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3233 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Bacher, D. G.

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blouin, A.

A. Blouin and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 932 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Carter, T. P.

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

de Montmorillon, L.-A.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delaye, P.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dewhurst, R. J.

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ing, R. K.

R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3233 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Launay, J.-C.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Manavi, M.

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Moerner, W. E.

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Monchalin, J.-P.

A. Blouin and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 932 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3233 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D.

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3233 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Blouin and J.-P. Monchalin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 932 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. P. Carter, C. Bräuchle, V. Y. Lee, M. Manavi, and W. E. Moerner, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3998 (1987).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. J. Dewhurst and Q. Shan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, R139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L.-A. de Montmorillon, I. Biaggio, P. Delaye, J.-C. Launay, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 129, 293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, D. G. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Commun. 162, 79 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure and energy-level diagram of TZT. The triplet state T1 can be efficiently populated, as the rate k12 for the intersystem crossing is larger than the rate k10 of the spontaneous decay of singlet state S1 to ground state S0. The triplet lifetime τT=k20-1 determines the recovery time of the system, σ is the absorption cross section, and Φ is the photon flux.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the TZT–PMMA film and the possible refractive-index change if the absorption is completely bleached. The arrow at λ=647 nm indicates the wavelength of the laser measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency response of the photochromic detection system for several intensities I. The response at high frequencies is flat and rolls off near 10 Hz. The frequency of the phase modulation is simulated by an electro-optic (EO) phase modulator (inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of ultrasonic surface displacement with the photochromic polymer. The surface displacement is created with a pulse-driven transducer mounted upon the back side of a mirror (inset).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

αI=Ntotσ11+I/Isat, Isat=hνk20k10+k12k12σ,
nI=Ntotκ11+I/Isat+nPMMA, κω=cπP0σωω2-ω2dω,
ISl=IS0exp-α¯lexp-2γl+2 exp-γlsinγlφt,
γ=Ntotσ11+Iref/IsatIref/Isat4,
γ=Ntotκ11+Iref/Isat2πIref/Isatλ,
α¯Iref=Ntotσ11+Iref/Isat.
S/N=2ηPS0hνΔf1/24πλexp-α¯l/2sinγlδrms,
S/Nideal=2ηPS0hνΔf1/24πλδrms
F=expα¯l/2sinγl.

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