Abstract

We investigate the adaptive optimization of broadband laser pulses, using a closed-loop learning algorithm in which the merit function is derived from two-photon absorption in semiconductors. Photoluminescence experiments with CdS thin films and photocurrent measurements of a GaAsP photodiode have been performed. The experimental data demonstrate that reliable and accurate pulse compression to the bandwidth limit can be achieved, unperturbed by nontrivial phase effects. Therefore two-photon absorption proves to be an easy-to-implement alternative to second-harmonic generation for the compression of broadband laser pulses.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, and H. Kapteyn, Opt. Lett. 24, 493 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Efimov, M. D. Moores, N. M. Beach, J. L. Krause, and D. H. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 23, 1915 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 25, 587 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. R. Armstrong, P. Plachta, E. A. Ponomarev, and R. J. D. Miller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1152 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, and D. H. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 26, 938 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  13. In Ref. 7 it was mentioned that TPA in a SiC photodiode was used as a merit function. However, no experimental data were shown, and no careful analysis and validation of the method were reported.
  14. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Nature (London) 396, 239 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1287 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. S. Chemla, in Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I, R. K. Willardson and E. R. Weber, eds., Vol. 58 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1999), p. 175.
    [Crossref]
  19. A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1047 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. In all our optimization experiments we divided the TPA or SHG signal by Pa2 to account for long-time drift of the laser power.
  24. Terms that are linear in frequency and constant terms were subtracted from the phases shown in this Letter, as they contain no relevant physical information in experiments with single pulses.
  25. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 9, 150 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

2000 (2)

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 25, 587 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1287 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, and H. Kapteyn, Opt. Lett. 24, 493 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1997 (3)

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1047 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[Crossref]

Arlt, S.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, M. R.

Backus, S.

Bartels, R.

Baumann, B.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beach, N. M.

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, in Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I, R. K. Willardson and E. R. Weber, eds., Vol. 58 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1999), p. 175.
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Efimov, A.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fork, R. L.

Gallagher Faeder, S. M.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Judson, R. S.

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 25, 587 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krause, J. L.

Krumbügel, M. A.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kunde, J.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maginnis, K.

Martinez, O. E.

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1287 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Nature (London) 396, 239 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. J. D.

Moores, M. D.

Morier-Genoud, F.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 25, 587 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

Omenetto, F.

Plachta, P.

Ponomarev, E. A.

Rabitz, H.

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitze, D. H.

Rundquist, A.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Russek, U.

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
[Crossref]

Siberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegner, U.

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 872 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1287 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Nature (London) 396, 239 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Strehle, M.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sweetser, J. N.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Taft, G.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

Trebino, R.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vdovin, G.

Wefers, M. M.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yelin, D.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zeek, E.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 68, 281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Kunde, B. Baumann, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Siegner, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 924 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Nature (London) 396, 239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Commun. 138, 345 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. Gallagher Faeder, and Y. Siberberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

In Ref. 7 it was mentioned that TPA in a SiC photodiode was used as a merit function. However, no experimental data were shown, and no careful analysis and validation of the method were reported.

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
[Crossref]

D. S. Chemla, in Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors I, R. K. Willardson and E. R. Weber, eds., Vol. 58 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1999), p. 175.
[Crossref]

In all our optimization experiments we divided the TPA or SHG signal by Pa2 to account for long-time drift of the laser power.

Terms that are linear in frequency and constant terms were subtracted from the phases shown in this Letter, as they contain no relevant physical information in experiments with single pulses.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral phase that maximizes the TPA-induced photoluminescence signal from a CdS thin film and the SHG signal. Terms that are linear in frequency and constant terms have been subtracted. From top to bottom, the bias group-delay dispersion of the setup at 800 nm increases by 207 fs2. Shaded area, power spectrum of the laser pulses. Number of iterations, 100.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral phase that maximizes the TPA-induced photocurrent signal from a GaAsP photodiode and the SHG signal. Number of iterations, 50. All other conditions as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TPA experiments: Optimum phase minus reference phase for the photoluminescence experiment with the CdS thin film and the photocurrent experiment with the GaAsP photodiode. Filled triangles, phase for +207fs2 bias GDD-reference phase; open triangles, phase for -207fs2 bias GDD-reference phase. The solid curves were calculated for a four-prism sequence; see text for details. Shaded areas, power spectra of the laser pulses.

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