Abstract

We present a method of three-dimensional observation of internal defects in semiconductor crystals for blue lasers by use of two-photon excitation. We excite photoluminescence by using a two-photon process. Since semiconductor materials have intrinsically high absorption in the short-wavelength region, the excitation light of photoluminescence is largely absorbed by the crystals. It is difficult to observe defects in deep regions. Two-photon excitation can overcome this limitation because near-infrared light can be used instead of blue light for excitation of photoluminescence, and the near-infrared light is absorbed at only the focused point. The excitation light can penetrate into the deep regions of the crystal. We succeeded in observing defects in a ZnSe crystal 200 µm below the crystal surface. This is, as far as we know, the first demonstration of the observation of three-dimensional structures of defects in semiconductor crystals by the use of two-photon excitation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Nakamura and T. Okada, Optik 100, 167 (1995).
  8. Y. Kawata, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 23, 756 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F.-J. Kao, M.-K. Huang, Y.-S. Wang, S.-L. Huang, M.-K. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Lett. 24, 1407 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Gan and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 1575 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, and S.-P. Tai, in Technical Digest of Focus on Microscopy 2000 (Society for Laser Microscopy, Shirahama, Japan, 2000).
  14. S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kawata, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 21, 1415 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, and T. J. Manuccia, Opt. Lett. 7, 350 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Gauderon, P. B. Lukins, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 23, 1209 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 25, 1768 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem. Rev. 100, 1777 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 4081, 76 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1083 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem. Rev. 100, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 4081, 76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gan and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1083 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 25, 1768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Kao, M.-K. Huang, Y.-S. Wang, S.-L. Huang, M.-K. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Lett. 24, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 21, 1415 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

O. Nakamura and T. Okada, Optik 100, 167 (1995).

1993

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

Araki, T.

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

Cheng, H.

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-W.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, and S.-P. Tai, in Technical Digest of Focus on Microscopy 2000 (Society for Laser Microscopy, Shirahama, Japan, 2000).

Cremer, C.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depuydt, J. M.

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. D.

Fujita, K.

Gan, X.

Gauderon, R.

Gu, M.

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gan and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 1575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M. A.

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

Hell, S.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.-K.

Huang, S.-L.

Inami, W.

S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishitobi, H.

Kao, F.-J.

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 4081, 76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem. Rev. 100, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 23, 756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, K. Fujita, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 21, 1415 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, K.

M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-K.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lukins, P. B.

Manuccia, T. J.

Nakamura, O.

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

Okada, T.

O. Nakamura and T. Okada, Optik 100, 167 (1995).

Qie, J.

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, G.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

F.-J. Kao, M.-K. Huang, Y.-S. Wang, S.-L. Huang, M.-K. Lee, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Lett. 24, 1407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, and S.-P. Tai, in Technical Digest of Focus on Microscopy 2000 (Society for Laser Microscopy, Shirahama, Japan, 2000).

Tai, S.-P.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, and S.-P. Tai, in Technical Digest of Focus on Microscopy 2000 (Society for Laser Microscopy, Shirahama, Japan, 2000).

Thompson, E. W.

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-S.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, E. D.

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Xie, X. S.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, A.

M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. G. Xu, E. D. Williams, E. W. Thompson, and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 39, 6312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qie, J. M. Depuydt, H. Cheng, and M. A. Haase, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2992 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

S. Kawata and Y. Kawata, Chem. Rev. 100, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Yamaguchi, A. Yamamoto, and K. Kondo, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Lee, W. Inami, and Y. Kawata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1796 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Optik

O. Nakamura and T. Okada, Optik 100, 167 (1995).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 4081, 76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, and S.-P. Tai, in Technical Digest of Focus on Microscopy 2000 (Society for Laser Microscopy, Shirahama, Japan, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for two-photon excitation of photoluminescence in a semiconductor crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observations of a ZnSe polycrystal: (a) two-photon excited photoluminescence, (b) reflection image of the surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observations of three-dimensional defect structures in ZnSe crystal. Sequential observations from 15- to 30µm depth are shown in 1µm intervals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequential observations from 50- to 300µm depth in intervals of 50 µm. It is possible to observe defect structures at a depth of at least 200 µm.

Metrics