Abstract

Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy for measurement of the absorption and scattering coefficients of biological tissue produces reliable results for wavelengths from 650 to 1050 nm. Implicitly, this approach assumes homogeneously distributed absorbers. A correction factor is introduced for inhomogeneous distribution of blood concentrated in discrete cylindrical vessels. This factor extends the applicability of diffusion theory to lower wavelengths. We present measurements of in vivo optical properties in the wavelength range 500–1060 nm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 246 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, and S. Andersson-Engels, Appl. Opt. 37, 1256 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Furutsu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 360 (1980).
  9. M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, and S. Andersson-Engels, Appl. Opt. 37, 1256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berns, M. W.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dognitz, N.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiskerstrand, E. J.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furutsu, K.

Giambattistelli, E.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kopstad, G.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. L.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, A. M. K.

Norvang, L. T.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okada, E.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smithies, D. J.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturesson, C.

Svaasand, E. K.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L. O.

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Talsma, A.

A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, D.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkruysse, W.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and D. Valentini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

A. Talsma, B. Chance, and R. Graaff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furutsu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 360 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Svaasand, E. J. Fiskerstrand, G. Kopstad, L. T. Norvang, E. K. Svaasand, J. S. Nelson, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Med. Phys. 22, 1209 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, and D. T. Delpy, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Different correction factors for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers. The first two (Svaasend et al.13 and Verkruysse et al.12) depend only on the product Rvesselμa,bl, and the influence of scattering was considered negligible. Talsma et al.10 incorporated scattering by blood μs=2.54 mm-1. For the equation from Liu et al., we set the absorption of the surrounding tissue to zero.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of fitting the absorbing components on the measured absorption spectra (filled squares) according to the homogeneous model (dashed curves) and the inhomogeneous model [Eq. (3); solid curves]. The relative residue μa μa,model-μa,meas/μa,model is also shown. The reduced scattering spectra (filled circles) can be seen above the absorption spectra and are the results of fitting μsλ0 and b of Eq. (1) to the reflectance spectra.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Contributions of the Absorbing Constituents and the Tissue Oxygenation Levels of Several Tissue Typesa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μs=μsλ0λ/λ0-b,
Cdiffλ=1-exp-2μa,blλRvessel2Rvesselμa,blλ,
μaλ= CdiffλνSμaHbO2λ+1-SμaHbλ+iciμaiλ,

Metrics