Abstract

The thermal-birefringence effect in Nd3+-doped YAG ceramics has been investigated. The amount of depolarization induced by thermal birefringence in Nd:YAG ceramics is nearly the same as that in (111)-cut single crystals at the same Nd3+ concentration. However, depolarization becomes larger as the Nd3+ concentration increases, even at the same absorbed pump power.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Taira, A. Mukai, Y. Nozawa, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1955 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 430–432.
  6. T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.
  7. I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.
  11. I. Shoji and T. Taira, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in a YAG crystal.”
  12. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 393–409.
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Y. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Y. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bond, W. L.

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 430–432.

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 393–409.
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

Li, C.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, A.

Nozawa, Y.

Pavel, N.

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, M.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rice, D. K.

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 758 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Saikawa, J.

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

Sato, Y.

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

Shoji, I.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

I. Shoji and T. Taira, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in a YAG crystal.”

Song, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Taira, A. Mukai, Y. Nozawa, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1955 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 430–432.

I. Shoji and T. Taira, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in a YAG crystal.”

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

Ueda, K.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagitani, T.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 430–432.

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, Appl. Phys. B 71, 469 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. Shoji, S. Kurimura, Y. Sato, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, T. Taira, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Y. Fan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner and D. K. Rice, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 557 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikesue, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1921 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Lupei, T. Taira, A. Lupei, N. Pavel, I. Shoji, and A. Ikesue, Opt. Commun. 195, 225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 430–432.

T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J. Saikawa, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 212–215.

I. Shoji, Y. Sato, S. Kurimura, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, and K. Yoshida, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 560–561.

I. Shoji and T. Taira, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Intrinsic reduction of the depolarization loss in a YAG crystal.”

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 393–409.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the thermal-birefringence measurement of the laser materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depolarized beam patterns for (a) a 1.0-at. % Nd:YAG single crystal [(111)-cut sample] and (b) a 3.4-at. % Nd:YAG ceramic at absorbed pump powers of 1052 and 1085 mW, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the depolarization on the absorbed pump power for the ceramic and the single-crystal samples with various Nd3+ concentrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depolarization as a function of Nd3+ concentration for the ceramic and the single-crystal sample at absorbed pump power of 1000 mW. The dotted line is the calculated result, with the assumption that the thermal conductivity of the 3.4-at. %-doped ceramic decreases to 8 W/mK, and the solid curve is the calculation taking into account the increase in thermal loading (κ is fixed to be 10 W/mK).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Parameters Used for Numerical Calculations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dependence of Radiative Quantum Efficiency ηr and Thermal Loading ηh on Nd3+ Concentration in YAG Media

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δnr,z=-n036p11-p12+4p44×rr,z-ϕr,z,
ΔTr,z= αηhPab exp-αz4πκ1-exp-αLlnr02r2+E12r02wp2-E12r2wp2
Dpol=1πra20ra02π sin22ϕsin2Ψr2rdrdϕ,
rr,z-ϕr,z=αl1+ν1-ναηhPab exp-αz4πκ1-exp-αL×2r20rE12r2wp2rdr-E12r2wp2-1,

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