Abstract

We demonstrate maskless, single-step fabrication of strongly birefringent Fresnel zone plates by focusing of femtosecond laser pulses deep within silica substrates. The process allows us to produce alternate zone rings directly by inducing a local refractive-index modification of the order of n10-2. The embedded zone plates shown in this Letter exhibit efficiencies that vary by as much as a factor of 6 for orthogonal polarizations. Focal lengths of primary and secondary foci are shown to compare well with theory.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, and H. Nishihara, Appl. Opt. 29, 5120 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6803 (1997).
  8. K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kirz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 301 (1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Nishihara and T. Suhara, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolfe, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 5–11.

2002 (1)

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6803 (1997).

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1976 (1)

J. Higbie, Am. J. Phys. 44, 929 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. D.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6803 (1997).

Haruna, M.

Higbie, J.

J. Higbie, Am. J. Phys. 44, 929 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

Kitaura, N.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6803 (1997).

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mingtao, L.

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, and H. Nishihara, Appl. Opt. 29, 5120 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolfe, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 5–11.

Nishii, J.

Ogata, S.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oiu, J.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, K.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolfe, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 5–11.

Sun, H.

Sun, K.

Takahashi, M.

Wakahayashi, K.

Wang, J.

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Xu, Y.

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, L.

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. Higbie, Am. J. Phys. 44, 929 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Mingtao, J. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 673 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6803 (1997).

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Berry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, Opt. Commun. 199, 375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, Opt. Eng. 34, 584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Oiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Nishihara and T. Suhara, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolfe, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 5–11.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for single-step fabrication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope image of the central part of a femtosecond directly written Fresnel zone plate positioned between cross polarizers. Bright regions correspond to the laser-processed area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured focal lengths (points) and theoretical focal lengths (curves) of lens B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the University of Southampton logo produced by an embedded Fresnel lens.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Results of Efficiency and Index Modification of Lenses A and B for Given Interrogating Wavelengths and Polarization

Equations (2)

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Rm=mfλ,
f=f1λ1/λ,

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