Abstract

We observed and measured the relative carrier-envelope phase difference per round trip between synchronized femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite mode-locked lasers. The relative carrier-envelope phase slip was directly recorded by heterodyning of the Cr:forsterite laser with the supercontinuum from the Ti:sapphire laser. We also obtained another phase relation by superimposing the third harmonic of the Cr:forsterite laser with the second harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser. In the latter case we obtained a stable beat signal with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 30 dB and found a dependence of the beat frequency on the cavity length.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Kobayash and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1295 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThZ2.
  9. Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kobayash and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ell, R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayash, Y.

Kobayashi, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThZ2.

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzler, G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelton, R. K.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kobayash and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThZ2.

Udem, Th.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThZ2.

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Ye, J.

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. B

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, Appl. Phys. B 74, S171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. K. Shelton, L. S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThZ2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for heterodyning the Cr:forsterite (C:F) laser with the continuum from the Ti:sapphire (T:S) laser: PDF, 25-cm PCF with a 1.8µm core diameter; F1, F2, 40× objective lenses; BS, metal beam splitter; LF, optical filter. M1–M3, gold mirrors. (b) Observed beat signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of beat signal measurement with nonlinear optical crystals: M1–M7, gold-coated mirrors; F1–F4, f=100 mm focus lens; C1–C3, 1-mm-thick BBO crystals cut to θ=29° (C1 and C3 are type I for the SHGs of 1250 and 830 nm, respectively; C2 is type II for the THG of 1250 nm); DM, dichroic mirror coated for high transmission (600 nm) and high reflection (1250 nm); AP, aperture; BS, metal beam splitter with RT40%; SF, optical filter; PMT, photomultiplier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency spectrum obtained by heterodyning of the SH of the Ti:sapphire laser with the TH of Cr:forsterite lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Beat signals acquired by shifting of the mirror displacement and (b) corresponding spectra of the Ti:sapphire laser.

Equations (2)

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ΔΦ=3Δϕ2-2Δϕ1=2πΔδ*/F,
ΔΦ=8πΔl/λTS,

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