Abstract

Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) allows simultaneous micrometer-scale resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue structure and blood flow. We demonstrate a fiber-optic polarization-diversity-based differential phase contrast DOCT system as a method to perform self-referenced velocimetry in highly scattering media. Using this strategy, we reduced common-mode interferometer noise to <1 Hz and improved Doppler estimates in a scattering flow phantom by a factor of 5.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2002 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (5)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, Opt. Lett. 22, 1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K. K.

Boas, D. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Dasari, R. R.

Davé, D. P.

de Boer, J. F.

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

FitzGerald, J. B.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, M. S.

Hanlon, E. B.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. M.

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wax, A.

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. C.

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

Zvyagin, A. V.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Williams and H. K. Wickramasinghe, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-optic self-referenced DOCT Michelson interferometer with polarization diversity detection. Differential phase contrast between the two detected polarization channels was used to eliminate common-mode frequency noise in the interferometer. PCs, polarization-controlling paddles; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; D1, D2, SI photodetectors; BPFs, bandpass filters; LO, local oscillator; A/D’s, analog–digital converters; I, Q, in-phase and quadrature signal components, respectively, after demodulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depth-resolved Doppler frequency profiles from a manually dithered mirror. The individual polarization channels demonstrate phase wrapping and fluctuations. Subtracting the two profiles results in a self-referenced profile with subhertz frequency noise. The standard deviation of the noise was reduced from 3.5 to 0.11 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, Single-channel DOCT image of a stationary Liposyn phantom. The horizontal lines were caused by the depth-dependent variations of the reference from its nominal velocity, which we intentionally induced to simulate interferometer noise. B, Self-referenced DOCT image illustrates nearly complete cancellation of the reference-arm noise that is present in both channels. C, Average of 40 depth profiles from images A and B. Excluding the surface reflection artifact, frequency variations were reduced from σ=1.74 kHz to σ=37 kHz, comparable to a frequency precision4 of 0.26 kHz with N=16 and 1/τpixel=26 kHz and assuming a Gaussian random noise process4 with 40 samples. fs,i, sample-arm Doppler frequency for channel i=1,2; Δfs, differential Doppler shift. D, Cross-sectional DOCT of glass capillary tube with flowing Liposyn. E, Self-referenced DOCT image indicates that the flow information was encoded in the differential frequency component Δfs, whereas the common-mode reference-arm noise was eliminated.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

git=gitexp-j2πfs,it+βit,
Riτ=Riτexp-iϕiτgi*tgit+τ,
ϕiτ=2πfs,iτ+βit+τ+βiτ.
ϕSRτ=ϕ2-ϕ1=2πτfs,2-fs,1=2πτΔfs,
Ri,mτ=gi,m*tgi,m+1t,

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