Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a method of real-time dispersion compensation suitable for scanning interferometry and optical coherence tomography. Static grating tilt in a scanning frequency-domain optical delay line is shown to produce dispersion that is linearly proportional to scan position, and we use this property to achieve depth-dependent dispersion compensation during an interferometric scan through a dispersive sample.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 26, 413 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. de Boer, C. E. Saxer, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 40, 5787 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. F. Kwong, D. Yankelevich, K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, and A. Dienes, Opt. Lett. 18, 558 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-Arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. G. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, Opt. Lett. 23, 1843 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials—A Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1997).

2001 (3)

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, C. E. Saxer, and J. S. Nelson, Appl. Opt. 40, 5787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 26, 413 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brinkmeyer, E.

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 26, 413 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, K. C.

Chujo, W.

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Dienes, A.

Drexler, W.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goswami, D.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Karamata, B.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keusters, D.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Kwong, K. F.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. C.

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials—A Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1997).

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sampson, D. D.

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, K. K. M. B. D.

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. D. J.

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Ulrich, R.

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 26, 413 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ung-Arunyawee, R.

Wada, N.

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

Yang, W. G.

Yankelevich, D.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zawadzki, R.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A. V.

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. K. M. B. D. Silva, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, Electron. Lett. 35, 1404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Brinkmeyer and R. Ulrich, Electron. Lett. 26, 413 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. D. J. Smith, S. C. Moore, N. Wada, W. Chujo, and D. D. Sampson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Zawadzki, B. Karamata, and T. Lasser, Opt. Express. 9, 610 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials—A Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FD-ODL: dashed–dotted lines; optical axes; dotted lines, arbitrary wavelengths λ; QWP, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SMF, single-mode fiber; p, grating period; θg, angle from grating normal to z axis; f, lens focal length; β, angle of λ path from z axis; θ, mirror tilt from x axis; xo, mirror pivot lateral offset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Delay-line dispersion for several grating line spacings; diffraction order, m=+1. Reference values are shown for materials at 815 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single depth scan through 4 mm of LiTaO3, with the grating set normal. Dashed curves, calculated envelopes and modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single depth scan through 4 mm of LiTaO3, with the grating set at θg=7.5°. Dashed curves, calculated envelopes and modulation.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φω=4ωxoθ/c-4ωfθ sin β/c,
Φω4xoθcωo+4xoθc+8πmfθpωo cos θgΔω.
Φω= Φωo+ΦωoΔω-16π2m2cfθ sin θgp2ωo3 cos3 θgΔω22!+48π2m2cfθ sin θgp2ωo4 cos3 θg1+2πmc sin θgpωo cos2 θgΔω33!+,
Φωo/cΦωo=-2πm sin θg/pωo2 cos2 θg
Dλ=ngm sin θg/pc cos2 θg,
Sλ=dDλdλ=ngm sin θgλopc cos2 θg1+3mλo sin θgp cos2 θg.

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