Abstract

We describe the design, construction, and application of what are believed to be the smallest fiber-optic probes used to date during imaging or diagnosis involving low-coherence interferometry (LCI). The probes use novel fiber-optic gradient-index (GRIN) lenses fabricated by a recently developed modified chemical-vapor-deposition (MCVD) process that avoids on-axis aberrations commonly marring MCVD-fabricated GRIN substrate. Fusing GRIN fiber lenses onto single-mode fiber yields automatically aligned all-fiber probes that insert into tissue through hypodermic needles as small as 31-gauge (inner diameter, 127 µm). We demonstrate the use of such probes with LCI by measuring microscopic brain motions in vivo.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 27, 98 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 27, 34 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Li, C. Chudoba, C. Ko, C. Pritris, and J. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 1520 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Messerschmidt, U. Possner, and S. N. Houde-Walter, Appl. Opt. 36, 8145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. MacChesney, Proc. IEEE 68, 1181 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. L. Emkey and C. A. Jack, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1156 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Rousseau and R. Sauvageon, “Method of controlling the etching and collapse of an MCVD tube by monitoring internal pressure,” U.S. patent6,131,413 (October17, 2000).
  12. M. S. Fee, Neuron 27, 461 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (2)

B. Messerschmidt, U. Possner, and S. N. Houde-Walter, Appl. Opt. 36, 8145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

W. L. Emkey and C. A. Jack, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1156 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. B. MacChesney, Proc. IEEE 68, 1181 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

de Boer, J.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emkey, W. L.

W. L. Emkey and C. A. Jack, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1156 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

M. S. Fee, Neuron 27, 461 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jack, C. A.

W. L. Emkey and C. A. Jack, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1156 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacChesney, J. B.

J. B. MacChesney, Proc. IEEE 68, 1181 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Messerschmidt, B.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 27, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Possner, U.

Pritris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Rollins, A. M.

Rousseau, J. C.

J. C. Rousseau and R. Sauvageon, “Method of controlling the etching and collapse of an MCVD tube by monitoring internal pressure,” U.S. patent6,131,413 (October17, 2000).

Sauvageon, R.

J. C. Rousseau and R. Sauvageon, “Method of controlling the etching and collapse of an MCVD tube by monitoring internal pressure,” U.S. patent6,131,413 (October17, 2000).

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. L. Emkey and C. A. Jack, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1156 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (N.Y.) (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

M. S. Fee, Neuron 27, 461 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. B. MacChesney, Proc. IEEE 68, 1181 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. C. Rousseau and R. Sauvageon, “Method of controlling the etching and collapse of an MCVD tube by monitoring internal pressure,” U.S. patent6,131,413 (October17, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial refractive-index profiles for two GRIN fiber lenses. Solid curves, index data as measured by the refracted near-field technique; red dashed curves, quadratic fits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, GRIN fiber lens fused to SMF 125 µm. The image of SMF reveals a sharp boundary (arrow) between core and cladding, unlike the lens. b, Histogram of length differences between intended and actual lens lengths. c, Mean insertion loss on splicing a GRIN fiber lens of nearly ½pitch length into the middle of SMF for two different GRIN lens types. Lens lengths are normalized by predicted ½pitch length. Measurements were performed with 1.41.6 µm excitation by use of a stabilized light source and an optical spectrum analyzer. Loss varies systematically due to wavelength dependence in the ½pitch length. The bars are not error bars but indicate the full range of loss over 1.41.6 µm. Inset, schematic depicting lens, SMF, and beam expansion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Composite 125µm-diameter probe with two GRIN lens elements fused to SMF. b, 80µm-diameter SMF fused to a 100µm-diameter GRIN fiber lens delivered via a 31-gauge needle (127µm i.d., 254µm o.d.). c, GRIN fiber lens probe for rotational scanning LCI, consisting of SMF fused to a GRIN fiber lens and a coreless quartz fiber. The quartz is angled so that the beam is emitted off axis and traces a cone when the fiber is rotated. d, e, Brain motion measured by LCI with a Ti:sapphire laser source compared to cardiac and respiratory signals. Black traces, brain displacement. d, Blue trace, electrocardiogram. e, Red trace, chest displacement measured with a piezoelectric sensor.

Equations (2)

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f=n1-w˜4w04cosgLsingLgn0sin2gL+w˜4w04cos2gL
w=λπn0w0gsin2gL+w˜4w04cos2gL1/2.

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