Abstract

We demonstrate coherent detection of continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation. This radiation is produced by use of conventional difference-frequency mixing and detected via the linear electro-optic effect. The detection process allows for the simultaneous measurement of the amplitude and phase properties of the infrared field. Both processes require an amplitude-modulated optical beam that is derived from the superimposed output of two single-frequency lasers. With appropriate choice of lasers and nonlinear optical crystals, the technique may be applied to any wavelength throughout the far and mid infrared.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  4. R. L. Byer, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
  5. M. K. Oshman and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 491 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See, for example, S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 18, 971 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Jundt, Opt. Lett. 22, 1553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1968

M. K. Oshman and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 491 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

See, for example, S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 18, 971 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Faist, J.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gini, E.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

M. K. Oshman and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 491 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jundt, D. H.

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misewich, J. A.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oesterele, U.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshman, M. K.

M. K. Oshman and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 491 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weling, A. S.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. T.

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, A. S. Weling, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. B 68, 333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. K. Oshman and S. E. Harris, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 491 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Allen, J. Faist, U. Oesterele, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. L. Byer, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup for the generation and coherent detection of cw mid-infrared radiation. The mid-infrared beam (dashed line) is generated in one PPLN crystal and detected in a second, identical crystal. For clarity, this radiation is shown to be separated spatially from the optical pump beam and probe beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured amplitude of the electro-optic signal versus the path-length difference. The solid curve is the best fit to the data with expression (1). The distance between the peaks of the signal corresponds to the mid-infrared wavelength and is 4.3 µm.

Equations (3)

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ΔIEOIopt0E0ΩcosΩΔd/c.
ΔEωiχ2-ωi;ωj,±ΩEωjEΩ,
IωiEωi2+2EωiΔEωicos φ+ΔEωi2,

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