Abstract

By analysis of the response of a high-contrast photoresist to sinusoidal illumination, generated interferometrically, one can extract a phenomenological modulation transfer function of the resist material, thereby characterizing its spatial resolution. Deep-ultraviolet interferometric lithography allows the resist response to be quantified at length scales below 100 nm. As an example, the resolution (FWHM) of the commercial resist UVII-HS is found to be approximately 50 nm. This simple method can be applied to materials under development for advanced photolithography with short-wavelength illumination.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Brunner and R. A. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2726, 198 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Mack, Proc. SPIE 2197, 501 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Brunner and R. A. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2726, 198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. A. Mack, Proc. SPIE 2197, 501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, T. A.

T. A. Brunner and R. A. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2726, 198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedyshyn, T. H.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. A.

T. A. Brunner and R. A. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2726, 198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frank, S.

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinsberg, W.

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinsberg, W. D.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, D.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J.

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houle, F. A.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larson, C. E.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mack, C. A.

C. A. Mack, Proc. SPIE 2197, 501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, M.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Optiz, J.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rajaratnam, M. M.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, M.

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, M. I.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thackeray, J.

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallraff, G.

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallraff, G. M.

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (5)

W. Hinsberg, F. A. Houle, J. Hoffnagle, M. Sanchez, G. Wallraff, M. Morrison, and S. Frank, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. I. Sanchez, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Thackeray, T. H. Fedyshyn, D. Kang, M. M. Rajaratnam, G. Wallraff, J. Optiz, and D. Hofer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 4267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Houle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Morrison, M. I. Sanchez, G. M. Wallraff, C. E. Larson, and J. A. Hoffnagle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1874 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hoffnagle, W. D. Hinsberg, M. Sanchez, and F. A. Houle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. A. Brunner and R. A. Ferguson, Proc. SPIE 2726, 198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Mack, Proc. SPIE 2197, 501 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of developed linewidth with dose. The three curves are given by Eq. (3) with aK=0.5 and relative amplitudes (a) 0.74, (b) 1.00, and (c) 1.55. The shaded rectangles indicate the undissolved resist profile, assuming a threshold shown by the horizontal line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship between dose and linewidth, according to the first-order development bias model with d=0.5Λ and γ=9.81. The curves are labeled by the modulation parameter aK.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between dose and linewidth for UVII-HS and Λ=197 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of measured MTF on spatial frequency.

Equations (4)

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ρx=p-+Iyfx-ydy,
Ix=Dq1+cosKx/2,
ρx=Dpq1+aKcosKx/2,
δt=dln1+y2+2arctany/y-2/y,

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