Abstract

We have developed a novel real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that uses optical Hilbert transformation. When we use a resonant scanner in the reference arm of the interferometer, with an axial scanning speed of 4 kHz, the frame rate of both structural and Doppler blood-flow imaging with a size of 100 by 100 pixels is 10 Hz. The system has high sensitivity and a larger dynamic range for measuring the Doppler frequency shift that is due to moving red blood cells. Real-time images of in vivo blood flow in human skin obtained with this interferometer are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. Hyle Park, Z. Yonghua, C. Zhongping, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

2001 (2)

2000 (4)

1999 (1)

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

1998 (1)

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56–60 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1358–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56–60 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64–66 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Dasari, R. R.

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Drexler, W.

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, X. D. Kartner, C. Piltris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyle Park, B.

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Kartner, X. D.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1358–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. Hyle Park, Z. Yonghua, C. Zhongping, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355–1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56–60 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64–66 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Piltris, C.

Prakash, N.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Saxer, C.

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Srinivas, S.

Srinivas, S. M.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, X. J.

Wax, A.

Welch, A. J.

Xiang, S.

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yonghua, Z.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1358–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Zhongping, C.

IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134–1141 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (9)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56–60 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo blood vessels in human skin using phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of a phase-resolved F-OCT system that uses polarization to perform optical Hilbert transformation. Ports A–E, pigtailed fiber ports; P1–P3, linear polarizers; QWP, quarter-wave plate; BS, nonpolarized beam splitter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PCs, polarization controllers; BPD1, BPD2, balanced photodetectors with preamplifiers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vitro particle flow imaging in a glass tube: A, structural image; B, Doppler shift image; C, Doppler shift profile along the center of the tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo results from human skin: A, structural image; B, Doppler shift image.

Equations (1)

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S1t=Atcosωt+ϕ,  S2t=Atsinωt+ϕ,

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