Abstract

We investigate the degradation of the Q factor of a fundamental whispering-gallery mode of a microsphere resonator when a fiber tip is placed in the evanescent field of the mode. With a tip diameter of 80 nm it is possible to maintain a Q factor exceeding 108, even when the tip is as close as 10 nm to the sphere surface. This result demonstrates the possibility of using such a tip as a “nanotool” to actively place a single nanoparticle in a single high-Q mode with great precision to achieve well-controlled coupling.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Cai and K. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 25, 260 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 25, 1636 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Fan, S. Lacey, and H. Wang, Opt. Lett. 24, 771 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Pelton and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2418 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, V. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Goetzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Towards controlled coupling between a high-Q whispering-gallery mode and a single nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

2001 (4)

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai and K. Vahala, Opt. Lett. 25, 260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 25, 1636 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1996 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Artemyev, M. V.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goetzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Towards controlled coupling between a high-Q whispering-gallery mode and a single nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chang, R. K.

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demmerer, S.

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domokos, P.

P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

Fan, X.

Gangl, M.

P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goetzinger, S.

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goetzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Towards controlled coupling between a high-Q whispering-gallery mode and a single nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hare, V.

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, V. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hettich, C.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaschinski, H.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jia, R.

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.-S.

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kiraz, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Lacey, S.

Laine, J. P.

Langbein, W.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, V. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

Little, B. E.

Long, M. B.

Mabuchi, H.

Maleki, L.

Michaelis, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, V. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramstein, M.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch, H.

P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, V. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goetzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Towards controlled coupling between a high-Q whispering-gallery mode and a single nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, B.-Q.

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P.-H.

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tapalian, H. C.

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

Vahala, K.

Wall, K. F.

Wang, H.

Wannemacher, R.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

M. Pelton and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Zhang, L.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Jia, D.-S. Jiang, P.-H. Tan, and B.-Q. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (2)

T. Kalkbrenner, M. Ramstein, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Goetzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. V. Artemyev, U. Woggon, R. Wannemacher, H. Jaschinski, and W. Langbein, Nano Lett. 1, 309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Domokos, M. Gangl, and H. Ritsch, Opt. Commun. 185, 115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R7777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Goetzinger, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Towards controlled coupling between a high-Q whispering-gallery mode and a single nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the experimental setup. Light from a diode laser is coupled in the microsphere resonator via a prism. Resonances are detected in absorption by a photodiode or via the light scattered in a multimode fiber sensor by a photomultiplier (PMT 2). An optical fiber probe stabilized by a shear-force mechanism can be placed in an intensity maximum of the evanescent field. The inset shows a picture of a typical microsphere resonator held by a thin stem. 3D, three-dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured total Q factor, Qtotalz, versus the distance z from the tip to the sphere’s surface for a 2µm tip. The theoretical fit (solid curve) is discussed in the text. The insets show (right) a picture of the fiber tip and (left) spatiospectral intensity mapping of the mode perpendicular to the sphere’s equator, which displays the characteristic single maximum of the fundamental mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured inverse total Q factor, 1/Qtotalz, with the tip brought to 10 nm from the sphere surface versus the inverse unperturbed Q factor, 1/Q0, when the tip is far from the sphere’s surface. (b) Measured total Q factor, Qtotalz, versus Q0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured total Q factor, Qtotalz, versus the distance z from the tip to the sphere’s surface for an 80-nm tip. The inset shows a scanning-electron microscope picture of the fiber tip.

Equations (1)

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1/Qtotalz=1/Q0+1/Qtipz,

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