Abstract

We have synthesized a series of chalcogenide glasses from the As–S–Se system that is designed to have strong nonlinearities. Measurements reveal that many of these glasses offer optical Kerr nonlinearities greater than 400 times that of fused silica at 1.25 and 1.55 µm and figures of merit for all-optical switching greater than 5 at 1.55 µm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Lenz, J. Zimmerman, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, Opt. Lett. 25, 254 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Heebner, Q.-H. Park, and R. W. Boyd, The Institute of Optics, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchinson Road, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, have submitted a manuscript entitled “Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a nanostructured waveguide” to Phys. Rev. E.
  3. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), p. 173.
  7. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 22, 1077 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Smolorz, F. W. Wise, and N. F. Borrelli, Opt. Lett. 24, 1103 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

2000

1999

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolorz, F. W. Wise, and N. F. Borrelli, Opt. Lett. 24, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 22, 1077 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belykh, A. V.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), p. 173.

J. E. Heebner, Q.-H. Park, and R. W. Boyd, The Institute of Optics, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchinson Road, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, have submitted a manuscript entitled “Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a nanostructured waveguide” to Phys. Rev. E.

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S.-W.

De Angelis, C.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Heebner, J. E.

J. E. Heebner, Q.-H. Park, and R. W. Boyd, The Institute of Optics, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchinson Road, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, have submitted a manuscript entitled “Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a nanostructured waveguide” to Phys. Rev. E.

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Ilday, F. Ö.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

Katsufuji, T.

Krauss, T. D.

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Foulgoc, K.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leneindre, L.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

Lucas, J.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, Yu. A.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mekryukov, A. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, M. D.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

J. E. Heebner, Q.-H. Park, and R. W. Boyd, The Institute of Optics, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchinson Road, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, have submitted a manuscript entitled “Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a nanostructured waveguide” to Phys. Rev. E.

Quemard, C.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Smetkala, F.

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smolorz, S.

Spälter, S.

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

S. Smolorz, F. W. Wise, and N. F. Borrelli, Opt. Lett. 24, 1103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, and F. W. Wise, Opt. Lett. 22, 1077 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Zimmerman, J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Smetkala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Yu. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekryukov, M. D. Mikhailov, and K. Richardson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213&214, 330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. E. Heebner, Q.-H. Park, and R. W. Boyd, The Institute of Optics, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchinson Road, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, have submitted a manuscript entitled “Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a nanostructured waveguide” to Phys. Rev. E.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), p. 173.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, Cornell University, 212 Clark Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, and B. G. Aitken have submitted a manuscript called “Ge–As–S–Se and Ge–As–Se nonlinear glasses for all-optical switching,” to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative SRTBC signal obtained with the EDFL. The calculated signal is derived from a zero-phase Fourier transform of the laser spectrum (inset). The difference between measurement and calculation for positive delay is due to the nuclear contribution to the nonlinearity.9

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of n2 with normalized photon energy. Results for As40Se55Cu5 and As25S55Te20 glasses are shown for comparison with As40Se60.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in the FOM with normalized photon energy. Results for As40Se55Cu5 and As25S55Te20 glasses are shown for comparison with As40Se60.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of the Measured Glasses

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