Abstract

The relationship between the depth of a target in a turbid medium and the fluorescence ratio profile measured by use of illumination and collection apertures with variable diameters and the same optical path is shown. The forward problem was studied by Monte Carlo simulations of the propagation of fluorescent light through a theoretical model of a biologically relevant system for a range of aperture diameters. The curve of the fluorescence ratio as a function of the aperture diameter is characterized by a maximum/minimum point whose position shifts linearly with the depth of the target. Furthermore, the position of the maximum/minimum is observed to be insensitive to variations in the fluorescence efficiency and to the optical properties of the target layer or the entire medium.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Ramanujam, Neoplasia 2, 89 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and M. Follen, Opt. Express 8, 335 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

N. Ramanujam, Neoplasia 2, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and M. Follen, Opt. Express 8, 335 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Marschesini, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen-Hoffmann, B. L.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cothren, R. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotran, R. S.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), p. 34.

Crawford, J. M.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Criswell, G.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Foster, T. H.

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hull, E. L.

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivarie, C. A.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), p. 34.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Manoharan, R.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marschesini, R.

R. Marschesini, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meisner, L. F.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, M. G.

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S. L.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Richards-Kortum, R.

N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Thomsen, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and M. Follen, Opt. Express 8, 335 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rifkin, D. S.

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, S. L.

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), p. 34.

Sattler, C. A.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlosser, S. J.

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, N.

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S.

Van Dam, J.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, S.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G. I.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, Gastrointest. Endosc. 49, 447 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

B. L. Allen-Hoffmann, S. J. Schlosser, C. A. Ivarie, C. A. Sattler, L. F. Meisner, and S. L. O’Connor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 114, 444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

A. J. Welch, C. Gardner, R. Richards-Kortum, E. Chan, G. Criswell, J. Pfefer, and S. Warren, Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Marschesini, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neoplasia (1)

N. Ramanujam, Neoplasia 2, 89 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. H. Foster, E. L. Hull, M. G. Nichols, D. S. Rifkin, and N. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2979, 741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. L. Robbins, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989), p. 34.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the theoretical model, which approximates the tissue culture system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized fluorescence ratio versus diameter of the illumination–collection aperture for the model containing a SCC layer (without GFP).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized fluorescence ratio versus aperture diameter for the model containing a SCC–GFP layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aperture diameter that corresponds to the minimum (for SCC) or the maximum (for SCC–GFP) fluorescence ratio (MFR diameter) verus to depth of the SCC layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MFR diameter relative to depth of the SCC–GFP layer when both the depth and the thickness were varied and when only the depth was varied.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Theoretical Modela

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