Abstract

We have developed an optical stack of holographically formed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal (H-PDLC) devices that is fully operational with nonpolarized light sources. The device consists of two H-PDLC transmission gratings separated by a passive polarization rotator that can output a diffracted s-polarized, p-polarized, or s- and p-polarized beam simultaneously.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 2235 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. D. Love, Appl. Opt. 32, 2222 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Broer, in Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries, G. P. Crawford and S. Zumer, eds. (Tayor & Francis, New York, 1996), pp. 239–254.
  10. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics in Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 163–166.

2002 (1)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Ashmead, A. C.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, in Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries, G. P. Crawford and S. Zumer, eds. (Tayor & Francis, New York, 1996), pp. 239–254.

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danworaphong, S. D.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Date, S.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S.

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S. M.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fontecchio, A. K.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics in Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 163–166.

Kato, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Le

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. J.

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, R. T.

Popovich, M. M.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M. G.

Siwecki, S. A.

Smith, R. T.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Storey, J.

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Pogue, R. L. Sutherland, M. G. Schmitt, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 12A (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics in Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 163–166.

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. J. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. C. Bowley and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 2235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cairns, C. C. Bowley, S. D. Danworaphong, A. K. Fontecchio, G. P. Crawford, L. Li, and S. M. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Bowley, A. K. Fontecchio, J. J. Lin, Le Li, S. Faris, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, and S. Date, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2  38, 277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. H. Domash, G. P. Crawford, A. C. Ashmead, R. T. Smith, M. M. Popovich, and J. Storey, Proc. SPIE 4107, 46 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. J. Broer, in Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries, G. P. Crawford and S. Zumer, eds. (Tayor & Francis, New York, 1996), pp. 239–254.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics in Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 163–166.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

H-PDLC in (a) the voltage-off state, where the p polarization is diffracted, and (b) the voltage-on state, where the grating vanishes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Two H-PDLC gratings, G1 and G2, separated by a polarization rotator (PR) element fabricated from reactive mesogens. The Bragg diffraction angle is θB. The PR element is shown acting on p-polarized light, but it also rotates s polarization at normal and oblique angles. (b) Scanning electron microscope photograph of the H-PDLC gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction modes of the H-PDLC optical stack: (a) p- and s-polarization mode, (b) p-polarization mode, (c) s-polarization mode, and (d) no diffraction. Upon application of a voltage, the grating vanishes as illustrated schematically.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular selectivity of our optical stack compared with individual gratings (, grating stack G1–PR–G2, excluding ITO absorption; , grating stack G1–PR–G2, accounting for ITO absorption; , single grating G1; , single grating G2). The top inset shows the transmission of the polarization rotator [, data; —, fit to Eq. (1)]. The bottom inset shows the parameters used to estimate the angular parallax when gratings are misaligned.

Equations (1)

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ξr=1-11+u2sin2π21+u1/2,

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