Abstract

The gains and noise figures of discrete second-order-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers utilizing copropagating and counterpropagating pump configurations were experimentally obtained, and the gain results were compared with computer simulations. It was found that the additional gain that is due to second-order Raman pumping is larger for the copropagating pumps than for the counterpropagating pumps, in agreement with simulations. In contrast to distributed second-order-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers, a slight increase in noise figure, by as much as 1 dB was observed relative to the single-pump scheme. However, the advantages of second-order pumping in discrete amplifiers include greater flexibility in design of the gain distribution along the fiber and the ability to spectrally distribute the pump powers to avoid undesired nonlinear effects.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).
  2. K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.
  3. L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).
  4. Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Belardi, W.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blank, L. C.

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Blondel, J.-P.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Boubal, F.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Brandon, E.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Buet, L.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Darbois, N.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Davey, S. T.

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Dufournet, D.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Feder, K.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Hansen, P.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Havard, V.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Labrunie, L.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Le Roux, P.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Lee, J. H.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mesic, M.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Monro, T. M.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Piriou, L.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Richardson, D. J.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Spirit, D. M.

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Stentz, A.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Teh, P. C.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tran, A.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

Walker, K.

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

Williams, D. L.

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Yusoof, Z.

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J (1)

D. M. Spirit, L. C. Blank, S. T. Davey, and D. L. Williams, IEE Proc. J 137, 221 (1990).

Opt Lett. (1)

Z. Yusoof, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. Teh, and D. J. Richardson, Opt Lett. 27, 424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, T. Nielsen, P. Hansen, K. Feder, and K. Walker, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Nice, France, September 26–30, 1999.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, E. Brandon, L. Buet, N. Darbois, D. Dufournet, V. Havard, P. Le Roux, M. Mesic, L. Piriou, A. Tran, and J.-P. Blondel, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of (a) the counterpropagating and (b) the copropagating pump schemes for the second-order pumped FRA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental net gain (filled symbols) and NF (open squares and triangles) results and simulated net gain results (open diamond and star) for (a) the counterpropagating and (b) the copropagating pump schemes. Squares and diamond, first-order pumping only; triangles and star, first- and second-order pumping.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated power evolution along the DSF for the (top) signal and (bottom) pump in (a) the counterpropagating and (b) the copropagating pump schemes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Parameters Used in the Simulation

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