Abstract

We describe a phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that can simultaneously yield in situ images of tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and the Stokes vectors in human skin. Multifunctional images were obtained by processing of analytical interference fringe signals derived from two perpendicular polarization-detection channels. The blood flow velocity and standard deviation images were obtained by comparison of the phases from pairs of analytical signals in neighboring A-lines in the same polarization state. The analytical signals from two polarization-diversity detection channels were used to determine the four Stokes vectors for four reference polarization states. From the four Stokes vectors, the birefringence image, which is not sensitive to the orientation of the optical axis in the sample, was obtained. Multifunctional in situ images of a port wine stain birthmark in human skin are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Z. Ding, Y. Zhao, H. Ren, S. J. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Express 10, 236 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Nelson, S. J.

Park, B. H.

Prakash, N.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Z. Ding, Y. Zhao, H. Ren, S. J. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Express 10, 236 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

Saxer, C. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Srinivas, S.

Srinivas, S. M.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

Xiang, S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-based F-OCT system. Pol. Mod., polarization-state modulator; Pol. Control; polarization controller; Phase Mod., phase modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; RSOD, rapid-scanning optical delay line; D1, D2, detectors; Galvo, galvanometer scanner; High Vol. Amp., high-voltage amplifier; Fun Gen1–Fun Gen3, function generators; Amp, low-noise preamplifier; GPIB, general-purpose interface bus; Syn Out, synchronizing signal of the driving signal for the galvanometer scanner, which is from Fun Gen3; Trigger in, trigger-in signal to Fun Gen1 and 2, which is generated from the analog-to-digital board; Trigger out, trigger-out signal from Fun Gen1 to arm the analog-to-digital board.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Synchronizing time-clock diagram for the F-OCT system. Channel (Ch) 1 is the signal generated from the synchronized trigger output of function generator 1 and arms the analog-to-digital conversion. Channel 2 is the signal generated by function generator 1 to control the polarization modulator. Channel 3 is the triangle signal from the function generator 3 to control the galvanometer scanning. Channel 4 is the signal generated by synchronized output of function generator 3 through a digital delay. This signal is used to trigger the phase modulation and data acquisition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous imaging of the Stokes vectors, structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, and birefringence from in vivo human skin. The top four panels are the Stokes vector image corresponding to the four reference polarization states. The bottom four panel images are A, structural image; B, blood flow velocity image; C, standard deviation image; D, phase-retardation image.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ˜t=200τΓtexp-2πiνtdt exp2πiνtdν,
fn=12πTtan-1Imm=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jtmΓ˜j+1*tmRem=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jtmΓ˜j+1*tm,
σn2=12π2T21-m=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jtmΓ˜j+1*tmm=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jtmΓ˜j*tm,
S0,n=m=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jHtmΓ˜jH*tm+Γ˜jVtmΓ˜jV*tm, S1,n=S0,n-1m=n-1MnMj=14Γ˜jHtmΓ˜jH*tm-Γ˜jVtmΓ˜jV*tm, S2,n=S0,n-1m=n-1MnMj=142 ReΓ˜jHtmΓ˜jV*tm, S3,n=S0,n-1m=n-1MnMj=142 ImΓ˜jH*tmΓ˜jVtm,

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