Abstract

We demonstrate a novel device that comprises a pair of broadband and narrowband long-period gratings written in specially designed few-mode fibers to achieve in-fiber bandpass filtering. This device configuration opens the possibility of using long-period gratings for complex spectral shaping in a band-selection as opposed to the conventional band-rejection configuration. The devices are low loss <0.5 dB as well as tunable over large spectral ranges (26 nm). We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that the unique dispersive properties of long-period gratings allow for constructing dispersion-free bandpass filters with arbitrarily sharp spectral profiles.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Erdogan and D. Stegall, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 280–282.
  4. T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.
  5. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 203 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouteiller, J.-C.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Brar, K.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Eggleton, B. J.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan and D. Stegall, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 280–282.

Feder, K.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Her, T.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Jorgensen, C.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Litchinister, N. M.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Nelson, L. E.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Patel, D.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Ramachandran, S.

Raybon, G.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegall, D.

T. Erdogan and D. Stegall, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 280–282.

Steinvurzel, P.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Westbrook, P. S.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

Yan, M. F.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

T. Erdogan and D. Stegall, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 280–282.

T. Her, L. Leng, G. Raybon, J.-C. Bouteiller, C. Jorgensen, K. Feder, K. Brar, P. Steinvurzel, D. Patel, N. M. Litchinister, P. S. Westbrook, L. E. Nelson, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CThO42.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LPG phase-matching curve in dispersion-tailored few-mode fibers exhibits a TAP. LPGs written at the TAP yields large mode-conversion bandwidths. The TAP can be shifted by dimensional scaling of the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a bandpass filter. The splice ensures adiabatic transition of the LP02 mode from fiber I to fiber II. Arrows show dominant modes of propagation. (b) LP01 transmission spectra of LPG I and II: LPG I, broadband TAP resonance; LPG II, conventional narrowband resonance. (c) Resultant bandpass spectrum: spectrum defined by the characteristics of LPG II alone.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral shaping in a bandpass configuration. The bandpass spectrum is controlled by the spectrum of LPG II only. Three kinds of LPG II are shown: (a) 14 dB strong; 3-dB Δλ 2.5 nm; fiber II OD, 112 µm; (b) 5 dB strong; all other parameters the same as in (a); (c) 13 dB strong; 3-dB Δλ7 nm; fiber II OD, 118 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tunability and loss characteristics of a bandpass LPG. Tuning requires tuning of LPG II only. Thermal tuning of filter, 26-nm range with 180 °C temperature change. Filter insertion loss, 0.4 dB.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission and (b) GD response for conventional and bandpass filters. Conventional filters, solid curves; bandpass filters, dashed curves. The 3-dB Δλ (2.5 nm) is the same for both filters. Conventional filters, D±10 ps/nm. The bandpass filter is dispersion free. GD ripple, <1 ps within the 3-dB bandwidth.

Equations (1)

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E1=cos2Lκ2+δ2+δ2κ2+δ2sin2Lκ2+δ21/2×expi tan-1δκ2+δ2tanLκ2+δ2, E2=κκ2+δ2sinLκ2+δ2expiπ,

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