Abstract

To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of in vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Because glaucoma causes nerve fiber layer damage, which may cause loss of retinal birefringence, PS-OCT is a potentially useful technique for the early detection of glaucoma. We built a fiber-based PS-OCT setup that produces quasi-real-time images of the human retina in vivo. Preliminary measurements of a healthy volunteer showed that the double-pass phase retardation per unit depth of the RNFL near the optic nerve head is 39±6°/100 µm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2945 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  12. American National Standards Institute, “Safe use of lasers,” (Laser Institute of America, New York, 1993).
  13. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
[PubMed]

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
[PubMed]

Chao, L. C.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, A.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, A. W.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducros, M. G.

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
[PubMed]

Green, W. R.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfield, D. S.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzmark, E.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. E.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R. W.

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsack, J. D.

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 24, 300 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pedut-Kloizman, T.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigley, H.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiter, K.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C. E.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 25, 1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, B.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thomsen, S. L.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, C.

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (3)

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, and W. R. Green, Arch. Ophthalmol. 100, 135 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, T. Pedut-Kloizman, C. P. Lin, E. Hertzmark, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 586 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. E. Huang, L. C. Chao, Z. Chen, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. H. Park, C. E. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
[PubMed]

Nature Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nature Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

American National Standards Institute, “Safe use of lasers,” (Laser Institute of America, New York, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Light emitted by the source (S) is polarized with one of three polarizing beam splitters (PBSs) and modulated with a polarization modulator (PM) before it enters the 50/50 splitter. Balanced detection is implemented by means of a 99/1 splitter and a noise detector (ND). The reference arm is a rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD). The sample arm contains a telecentric scanner (TS), which pivots a beam through the eye’s pupil (E) by means of a set of galvo mirrors and two lenses. In the detector bench (DB), light is split into its two orthogonal components by a polarizing beam splitter and detected by two detectors. Polarization controllers (PCs) permit tuning of the polarization state at various locations in the setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Area near the optic nerve head. The image measures width×depth=1024×512 pixels=1 mm×1.5 mm. The dark top layer is the RNFL, with a thickness of 100 µm. The loss of signal in the deeper layers in the center of the image is probably caused by the presence of two blood vessels in the RNFL. Double-pass phase-retardation calculations were performed on regions of 64 averaged A lines exemplified by the black-bordered area in the upper left corner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the Stokes vectors with depth, from data averaged over 64 A lines. The Poincaré sphere is oriented such that the axis of rotation is pointing out of the plane of the drawing. The two thick lines show the change in Stokes vectors over a distance of 100 µm in the RNFL, and X’s indicate the surface Stokes states. The DPPR is derived from the angle of rotation about the optic axis, starting with the Stokes vector that belongs to the surface and finishing with the vector that belongs to a certain depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DPPR as a function of depth, with the data from Figs. 2 and 3. Solid curve, DPPR; dotted curve, reflected intensity; dashed curve, least-squares linear fit to DPPR data over a region considered to belong to the RNFL. The vertical dashed–dotted line represents the estimated RNFL boundary.

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