Abstract

We introduce a fiber ring optical resonator based on adiabatic fused-fiber grating couplers. The coupling of a through fiber to the resonator is controlled by the strength of the fiber Bragg gratings. By using two of these couplers and incorporating erbium-doped (ED) fiber in the ring, we control the internal loss of the ring by pumping the ED fiber. The transmission spectra of the through port and the drop port of a four-port configuration, a ring coupled to two waveguides, are measured. We show that the loss/coupling ratio of the ring-fiber system can be changed and thus that the transmission properties of the fiber can be controlled.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and P. Di Porto, Opt. Lett. 11, 251 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Choi, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 26, 1236 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 7, 288 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 188.
  8. A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A. Willems, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 23, 106 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and P. Di Porto, Opt. Lett. 11, 251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Albert, J.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chodorow, M.

Choi, J. M.

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and P. Di Porto, Opt. Lett. 11, 251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Daino, B.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and P. Di Porto, Opt. Lett. 11, 251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

Lee, R. K.

Malo, B.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Shaw, H. J.

Stokes, L. F.

Thériault, S.

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Willems, P. A.

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 188.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, Electron. Lett. 36, 32 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, S. Thériault, B. Malo, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, and S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 59, 309 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 188.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic ring resonator C coupled to waveguide a and waveguide b. The round-trip condition that describes the circulation about the ring is C1=αtb expiθC2, where 1-α2 is the propagation loss and θ is the phase delay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission of the device at resonance as we scan α by controlling the pumping of the ED fiber. (a) The through port, a2. In the overcoupled region, α>ta/tb, we see that there is very sensitive control of the transmission. (b) The drop port, b2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup. ra=ta=0.856 and rb=tb=0.991. ED fiber was spliced into ring C to provide control of loss parameter α.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized transmission as a function of detuning from resonance in optical frequencies. (a) The through port, a2. The three curves shown are representative of the undercoupled α<ta/tb, the critically coupled α=ta/tb, and the overcoupled α>ta/tb regions. (b) The drop port, b2, at similar values of α.

Equations (6)

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a2C2=taκa-κa*ta*a1C1
a2a12=αa2+ta2-2αatacos θ1+αa2ta2-2αatacos θ=αa-ta21-αata2θ=0,2π,
b2a12=1-ta21-tb2α1+α2ta2tb2-2αtatbcos θ=1-ta21-tb2α1-αtbta2θ=0,2π.
ta=-iK* sinhΓLΓ coshΓL+iΔβ/2sinhΓLgrating reflectance,
κa=ΓΓ coshΓL+iΔβ/2sinhΓLgrating transmittance,
Γ2=K2-Δβ22,    Δβ=2β-2πΛ, KωcΔngrating.

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