Abstract

Thin films of Bi were grown by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates at room temperature. The thickness and roughness of the films were characterized by grazing-incidence x-ray reflectivity, and the complex refractive indices were measured in the range from 1.5 to 4 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We performed Z-scan measurements to study the third-order optical nonlinearity of the films. It was found that the Bi films exhibited an unusually large nonlinear refractive coefficient, nI1.24×10-1 cm2/kW and nonlinear absorption coefficient, αI-3.97 cm/W, at low laser intensity, 60 kW/cm2. This anomaly is believed to have an origin related to melting of the Bi films at the focus spot by the laser beam.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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1998

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. C. G. de Sande, T. Missana, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 7023 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. W. E. Smith, Proc. SPIE 1852, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Bowen and B. K. Tanner, Nanotechnology 4, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1982

J. Hill, G. Parry, and A. Miller, Opt. Commun. 43, 151 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. Atkinson and P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 17, 207 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. G. de Sande, T. Missana, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 7023 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson and P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 17, 207 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, D. K.

D. K. Bowen and B. K. Tanner, Nanotechnology 4, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Sande, J. C. G.

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. G. de Sande, T. Missana, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 7023 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D. O.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J.

J. Hill, G. Parry, and A. Miller, Opt. Commun. 43, 151 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lissberger, P. H.

R. Atkinson and P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 17, 207 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Magruder, R. H.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R. G.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

J. Hill, G. Parry, and A. Miller, Opt. Commun. 43, 151 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Missana, T.

J. C. G. de Sande, T. Missana, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 7023 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

Morgan, S. H.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mozolowski, M. H.

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parry, G.

J. Hill, G. Parry, and A. Miller, Opt. Commun. 43, 151 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saifi, M. A.

Sema, R.

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W. E.

P. W. E. Smith, Proc. SPIE 1852, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Stolen, R. H.

Tanner, B. K.

D. K. Bowen and B. K. Tanner, Nanotechnology 4, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeks, R. A.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zuhr, R. A.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Sema, J. C. G. de Sande, J. M. Ballesteros, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. G. de Sande, T. Missana, and C. N. Afonso, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 7023 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nanotechnology

D. K. Bowen and B. K. Tanner, Nanotechnology 4, 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. A. B. Miller, M. H. Mozolowski, A. Miller, and S. D. Smith, Opt. Commun. 27, 133 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Hill, G. Parry, and A. Miller, Opt. Commun. 43, 151 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, Opt. Mater. 4, 675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

P. W. E. Smith, Proc. SPIE 1852, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. Atkinson and P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 17, 207 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Chrisey and G. Hubler, eds., Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994), and references therein.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

GAXRD pattern of an Al2O3Bi multilayer film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and simulated GIXR profiles of an Al2O3Bi multilayer film. The simulated curve is shifted up by 1 order of magnitude for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra for the real part, n, and the imaginary part, k, of the complex refractive index and the absorption coefficient, α, for the Bi layer in an Al2O3Bi multilayer sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) z-scan transmittance of an Al2O3Bi multilayer film with a small aperture S=0.083. (b) z-scan transmittance with an open aperture S=1. (c) Normalized result (crosses) for the data in (a) divided by those in (b), and the theoretical fitting curve (solid curve) with αI=-3.97 cm/W and nI=1.24×10-1 cm2/kW.

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