Abstract

We present a novel technique for producing a doughnut laser beam by use of a liquid-crystal cell. It is demonstrated that the liquid-crystal cell exhibits an efficiency in energy conversion near 100%. One of the main advantages of this method is its capability of dynamic switching between a Gaussian mode and a doughnut mode of different topological charges. The liquid-crystal cell is also dynamically tunable over the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. These advantages make the device appealing for laser trapping methods used in single-molecule biomechanics and for optical guiding of cold atoms.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 188, 291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shin, K. Kim, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, W. Jhe, K. Oh, and U. C. Pack, Opt. Lett. 26, 119 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Stankovic, D. Dias, M. Hain, S. Bhattacharya, R. Glöckner, C. Karaboué, L. Benmohammadi, F. Guessous, L. Wang, T. Tschudi, M. Ferstl, E. Pawlowski, and R. Steingrüber, Appl. Opt. 40, 614 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Reicherter, T. Haist, E. U. Wagemann, and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Lett. 24, 608 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1990

Allen, L.

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benmohammadi, L.

Bhattacharya, S.

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christou, J.

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dholaki, K.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dias, D.

Dorschner, T. A.

Ferstl, M.

Friedman, L. J.

Gahagan, K. T.

Glöckner, R.

Guessous, F.

Hain, M.

Haist, T.

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hobbs, D. S.

Jhe, W.

Karaboué, C.

Kim, J. A.

Kim, K.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, N.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

Luther-Davis, B.

MacDonald, M. P.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Mcduff, R. G.

Mehta, A. D.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H. R.

Oh, K.

Ohzu, H.

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, Opt. Commun. 126, 123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pack, U. C.

Padgett, M. J.

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pawlowski, E.

Reicherter, M.

Resler, O. P.

Rief, M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, R. C.

Shin, Y.

Sibbet, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, N. B.

Smith, C. P.

Smith, D. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spudich, J. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovic, S.

Steingrüber, R.

Swartzlander, Jr., G. A.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, Opt. Commun. 126, 123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamm, C.

Tikhonenko, V.

Tiziani, H. J.

Tschudi, T.

Wagemann, E. U.

Wang, L.

Weiss, C. O.

White, A. G.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 188, 291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki and H. Ohzu, Opt. Commun. 126, 123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

X. Xu, K. Kim, W. Jhe, and N. Kwon, Phys. Rev. A 63, 3401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, Science 283, 1689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbet, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholaki, Science 292, 912 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase distribution of a doughnut beam. (a) Theoretical phase distribution of a doughnut beam of charge 1 according to 16 phase steps. (b) Electrode structure of the LC cell with 16 pie slices. The voltage variation as a function of the slice position is shown in Fig. 2(a). (c) Phase wave front of the doughnut beam of charge 1, measured with phase-shifting interferometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for generation of a doughnut beam through the LC cell and interference measurement of its phase distribution: P, polarizer; BS1, BS2, beam splitters; O, objective; L, lens; M1, M2, mirrors; PH, pinhole; S, screen. (a) Voltage variation as a function of the slice position of the LC cell. (b) Unwrapped phase shift of the LC cell as a function of applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Intensity distributions of laser beams transmitted through a LC cell and (d)–(f) the corresponding interference patterns. (a), (d) Gaussian beams; (b), (e) doughnut beam of charge 1; (c), (f) doughnut beam of charge 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the voltage between the two contact points [see Fig. 1(b)] as a function of the wavelength for the generation of a doughnut beam of charge 1.

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