Abstract

We report that self-focusing occurs with simultaneous self-inscription of a cylindrical waveguide when 514.5-nm light from a cw argon-ion laser propagates in a solgel-derived silica methacrylate hybrid glass planar waveguide. Spatially localized free-radical polymerization of methacrylate substituents is initiated in the path of the guided wave. This causes intensity-dependent refractive-index changes that lead to self-lensing and focusing. A channel waveguide evolves in the matrix, which supports fundamental and higher-order optical modes and suppresses diffraction of the beam.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Hisakuni and T. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 90, 483 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 21, 24 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).
  12. Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).
  14. M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Segev and G. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. P. Andrews and S. I. Najafi, eds., Sol-Gel Science and Polymer Photonic Devices Vol. CR68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

2000 (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Hisakuni and T. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 90, 483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adamovsky, G.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

Ashkin, A.

E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Barhelemy, A.

A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bazylenko, M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, E.

E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Curley, M. J.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diggs, D. E.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. M.

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

Froehly, C.

A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimalsky, W.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni and T. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 90, 483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwamura, H.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamura, Y.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P. L.

P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

Khitrova,

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klingert, B.

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maneuf, S.

A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

Martijn de Sterke, C.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Ming, L.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

Poladian, L.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roloff, A.

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

Saravanamuttu, K.

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

Sarkisov, S. S.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.-F.

Shoji, S.

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, I.

I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

H. Hisakuni and T. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 90, 483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Urwyler, B.

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

Wilkosz, A.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wirz, J.

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. (1)

K. Saravanamuttu, X. M. Du, S. I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, Can. J. Chem. 76, 1717 (1998).

Helv. Chim. Acta. (1)

Bis(η 5 cyclopentadienyl)bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-phenyl)titanium. See B. Klingert, A. Roloff, B. Urwyler, and J. Wirz, Helv. Chim. Acta. 71, 1858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Barhelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, Opt. Commun. 55, 201 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Opt. Commun. 119, 523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, D. E. Diggs, A. Wilkosz, W. Grimalsky, and G. Adamovsky, Opt. Eng. 39, 612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005 (1965).
[CrossRef]

E. Bjorkholm and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Kawamura, H. Iwamura, T. Ikegami, J. E. Sipe, and L. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 920 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. Martijn de Sterke, and L. Poladian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Hisakuni and T. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 90, 483 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. P. Andrews and S. I. Najafi, eds., Sol-Gel Science and Polymer Photonic Devices Vol. CR68 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the streak that results from wave propagation of 514.5-nm laser light in a titanocene-doped hybrid glass planar waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Waveguide Raman spectra of laser-initiated polymerization in the hybrid glass waveguide. A, δ CH in plane of ol-27-15-1342-i005CH2 at 1408 cm-1; B, νCol-27-15-1342-i006C at 1638 cm-1; C, νCol-27-15-1342-i007O at 1712 cm-1 (unsaturated ester); D, 1738 cm-1 (saturated); E, νsCH3 at 2899 cm-1; F, νsCH2 of ol-27-15-1342-i008CH2 at 2929 cm-1; G, νasCH of SiOCH3 at 2958 cm-1; H, νsCH of ol-27-15-1342-i009CH2 at 2996 cm-1; I, νasCH of ol-27-15-1342-i010CH2 at 3105 cm-1. The spectra are offset for clarity. (b) Evidence of self-focusing in the hybrid glass planar waveguide as the streak that results from the guided wave narrows over time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Evolution of waveguide output intensity during self-focusing. (b1) Scanning electron micrograph of a partially etched region of the hybrid glass slab showing a self-inscribed cylindrical waveguide, (b2) optical micrograph of fully etched waveguide, with approximately circular (inset) cross section. The bar in the inset represents 10 µm.

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