Abstract

We report on a new photorefractive medium consisting of a hole-transporting polymer composite matrix, electro-optically active nanodroplets of liquid crystals, and cadmium sulfide quantum dots as photosensitizers. This medium exhibits greater than 90% internal diffraction efficiency and a net two-beam coupling gain of 22.5 cm-1 with a response time of <1min. Data on optical transmission are also presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Peng, A. Gharavi, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 36, 41 (1995).
  5. B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Wang, M.-K. Ng, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 42, 240 (2001).
  13. F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Golemme, B. I. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Proc. SPIE 4279, 53 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, Opt. Lett. 20, 130 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Wang and N. Herron, Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 71 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Herron and Y. Wang, “Photo conductive polymer compositions and their use,” U.S. patent5,238,607 (August24, 1993).
  24. A. Taylor, X-Ray Metallography (Wiley, New York, 1961).
  25. C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6444 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Proc. SPIE 4279, 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, M.-K. Ng, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 42, 240 (2001).

2000 (4)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6444 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Golemme, B. I. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

Z. Peng, A. Gharavi, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 36, 41 (1995).

I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, Opt. Lett. 20, 130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and N. Herron, Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 71 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barkiewicz, S.

S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Proc. SPIE 4279, 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, R.

G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M. K.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, N.

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Durcharme, S.

S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. S.

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gharavi, A.

Z. Peng, A. Gharavi, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 36, 41 (1995).

Ghosal, S.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Golemme, B. I. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herron, N.

Y. Wang and N. Herron, Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 71 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Herron and Y. Wang, “Photo conductive polymer compositions and their use,” U.S. patent5,238,607 (August24, 1993).

Javidi, B.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Proc. SPIE 4279, 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6444 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kippelen, B.

A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Golemme, B. I. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, D. N.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, P. M.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lal, M.

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Meerholz, K.

F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

S. Bartkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Proc. SPIE 4279, 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M.-K.

L. Wang, M.-K. Ng, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 42, 240 (2001).

Ono, H.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6444 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orczyk, M. E.

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

Z. Peng, A. Gharavi, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 36, 41 (1995).

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Golemme, B. I. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steckman, G. J.

G. J. Steckman, R. Bittner, K. Meerholz, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Commun. 185, 13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swedek, B.

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

A. Taylor, X-Ray Metallography (Wiley, New York, 1961).

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

S. Durcharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tyczka, D.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. I.

Volodin, B. L.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, M.-K. Ng, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 42, 240 (2001).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and N. Herron, Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 71 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Herron and Y. Wang, “Photo conductive polymer compositions and their use,” U.S. patent5,238,607 (August24, 1993).

Weibel, J. F.

R. Burzynski, D. N. Kumar, M. K. Casstevens, D. Tyczka, S. Ghosal, P. M. Kurtz, and J. F. Weibel, Proc. SPIE 4087, 741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winiarz, J.

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winiarz, J. G.

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, R.

F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wurthner, F.

F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

L. Wang, M.-K. Ng, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 42, 240 (2001).

Z. Peng, A. Gharavi, and L. Yu, Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 36, 41 (1995).

Zhang, L.

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zieba, J.

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, and T. J. Bunning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. Zhao, C. Park, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Mater. 7, 1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, Chem. Phys. 245, 417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Golemme, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 655 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and N. Herron, Chem. Phys. Lett. 200, 71 (1992).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

F. Wurthner, R. Wortmann, and K. Meerholz, ChemPhysChem 3, 17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. G. Winiarz, L. Zhang, M. Lal, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Swedek, N. Cheng, Y. Cui, J. Zieba, J. Winiarz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5923 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Orczyk, B. Swedek, J. Zieba, and P. N. Prasad, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 6444 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A (1)

S. Barkiewicz, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A 361, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry used for PR characterizations. Beam 1 was approximately 23 W and beam 2 approximately 22 mW; both were 1.50 mm in diameter. The probe beam (beam 3) was approximately 5 mW and 1.25 mm in diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance versus electric field for various viewing angles. The 514.5-nm radiation was p polarized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

External diffraction efficiency versus electric field. The inset depicts the diffracted signal (obtained by monitoring of the intensity of beam 4 in Fig. 1) as a function of time for various experimental conditions. At t=0,E=50 V/µm is applied to the sample, with one of the writing beams blocked; at t1, the second writing beam is restored and the diffracted signal grows as a grating is written; at t2, the second writing beam is again blocked, which results in the erasure of the grating under the conditions of uniform illumination; at t3, the second writing beam is again restored and the diffracted signal again grows as a result of the new grating; at t4, E is switched off and the diffracted signal quickly decays; at t5 E is restored and the grating is rewritten; at t6, all beams are blocked; at t7, only the probe beam is restored and the stored grating is erased under the condition of uniform illumination; at t8, the writing beams are again restored and a new grating is written.

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