Abstract

A 1×N interferometer–based router with single-stage all-pass filters in the arms has low loss, a flat passband, and low cross talk. However, we show that the router has substantial cubic dispersion over the channel passband, which is identical from channel to channel. For a 1×4 router with a free spectral range of 100 GHz, the average dispersion slope over a 60% passband is -8×103 ps/nm2, and thus a cascade of four routers incurs a significant system power penalty. A three-stage all-pass filter placed on the input arm reduces the dispersion of all channels by a factor of 16. The router is quite insensitive to variations in the all-pass filter design parameters.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.
  5. C. K. Madsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1776 (1998).
  6. M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

1999 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. K. Madsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1776 (1998).

1997 (1)

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

1990 (1)

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amersfoot, M.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Bachmann, M.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Besse, P.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Bogert, G.

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chou, P.

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henion, S. R.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

Johnson, B.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R. C.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1776 (1998).

Melcior, H.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Olsson, N.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Orlowsky, K. J.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pol, V.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, L.

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shani, Y.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Strasser, T.

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

ten Kate, G.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Van Dam, C.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

van Ham, F.

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

Verbeek, B.

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Dragone, T. Strasser, G. Bogert, L. Schulz, and P. Chou, Electron. Lett. 33, 1312 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. K. Madsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1776 (1998).

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, and K. A. Rauschenbach, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Takada, H. Yamada, and Y. Inoue, J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 360 (1995).

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, Y. Shani, R. C. Kistler, V. Pol, and K. J. Orlowsky, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Verbeek, C. Henry, N. Olsson, K. Orlowsky, R. Kazarinov, and B. Johnson, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1011 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Van Dam, M. Amersfoot, G. ten Kate, F. van Ham, M. Smith, P. Besse, M. Bachmann, and H. Melcior, in Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 275.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an interferometer-based 1×4 demultiplexer with multimode interference (MMI) couplers. The phase controllers are denoted αq; the AP filters, ΦqAP; and the delays in terms of the unit delay, ΔT. The dashed box shows the additional AP filter used for dispersion compensation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized dispersion of a single-stage AP filter with ϕ=π and pole magnitudes of 0, 0.25, and 0.50. The maximum dispersion increases with the pole magnitude.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission of one arm of the 1×4 GMZI router (circles) with and (curve) without AP filters in the interferometer arms. The passbands are indicated by the bars. The AP filters flatten the passband and increase the cross-talk suppression.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized dispersion of the 1×4 GMZI with single-stage AP filters in the interferometer arms before and after compensation with a single-stage +1 or a three-stage +3 AP filter. The passband is between the lines with the arrows.

Equations (1)

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DN=-12πd2θdfN2=4πρ2-1ρτsin2πfN+ϕ1+ρ2+2ρ cos2πfN+ϕ2,

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