Abstract

The thermo-optic coefficient of the core material of a fiber is analyzed by use of a pair of long-period fiber gratings. First the effective index difference between the core and the cladding modes is measured from the peaks of the interference fringe generated by the grating pair. The order of the cladding mode is decided by the cutoff wavelength and the numerical aperture of the fiber. The material index of the fiber core is obtained in terms of wavelength. At each wavelength the index is chosen to minimize the difference between the measured and the calculated spectra of the grating pair. Finally the thermo-optic coefficient of the fiber core is calculated by repetition of the measurement at different temperatures. With a germanosilicate-core fiber and a boron codoped germanosilicate-core fiber, the thermo-optic coefficients were 1.1×10-5/°C and 0.75×10-5/°C, respectively.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1995

1994

G. Ghosh and M. Endo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 154 (1993).

1991

1984

Aggarwal, I. D.

Askins, C.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 154 (1993).

Chung, Y.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

Endo, M.

G. Ghosh and M. Endo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T. J.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Eom, Y. J.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Fleming, J. W.

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh and M. Endo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

Himeno, K.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa and S. Sudo, Optical Fibers: Materials and Fabrication (KTK Scientific, Tokyo, 1987), Chap. 2.

Jewell, J. M.

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

Krug, P. A.

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, Appl. Opt. 38, 3450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

MacChesney, J. B.

J. B. MacChesney, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. (personal communication, August2001).

Nishii, J.

Okude, S.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Ouellette, F.

Paek, U. C.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

Sakai, T.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Shima, K.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Sudo, S.

T. Izawa and S. Sudo, Optical Fibers: Materials and Fabrication (KTK Scientific, Tokyo, 1987), Chap. 2.

Thorncraft, D. A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 154 (1993).

Wada, A.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Yamauchi, R.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

Yoffe, G. W.

Appl. Opt.

Fiber Integr. Opt.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U. C. Paek, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

G. Ghosh and M. Endo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 154 (1993).

Other

J. B. MacChesney, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. (personal communication, August2001).

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 37 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 834.

Y. J. Kim, T. J. Eom, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThC15-1.

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper FB2.

T. Izawa and S. Sudo, Optical Fibers: Materials and Fabrication (KTK Scientific, Tokyo, 1987), Chap. 2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Differential effective index measured at each stop band of LPG pairs; 550- and 600µm periodicity is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective core index obtained from Fig. 1 by addition of the effective cladding index. The good alignment of the data points along a smooth curve means that the cladding mode ordering was proper.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured near-field image of the HE14 cladding mode. Four rings can be observed about the center peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the LPG pair made in the Samsung fiber and measured at 30 and 60 °C. The interference fringe was shifted to the longer-wavelength direction at a rate of +0.06 nm/°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differential effective index calculated from the interference fringe peaks in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature-dependent refractive indices of a germanosilicate core fiber (filled circles) and a boron codoped germanosilicate core fiber (open circles).

Equations (2)

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Tpair=T12+α2R12-2αT1R1 cos Ψ,
Δneffλp,q,T=1Λ+qLλp,qT,

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