Abstract

We present the results of an experiment in which we observed photon-number statistics of twin beams emerging from a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator. We generated the photocurrent for recording by detecting the light and mixing it with a standard electrical oscillator. The measured photocurrent variances exhibited a quantum correlation of as much as -4.9 dB between signal and idler, whereas their photon number distributions were super-Poissonian. We also obtained the difference photon-number distribution.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Aytur and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. C. Funk and M. Beck, Am. J. Phys. 65, 492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H.-A. Bachor, Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).
  15. K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, presented at the 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, Mass., June 4–8, 2001.
  16. A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. C. Funk and M. Beck, Am. J. Phys. 65, 492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aytur, O.

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

H.-A. Bachor, Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).

Beck, M.

A. C. Funk and M. Beck, Am. J. Phys. 65, 492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belsley, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boller, K.-J.

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiummo, A.

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. K.

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-K.

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, F. Y.

D’Ariano, G. M.

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faridami, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Funk, A. C.

A. C. Funk and M. Beck, Am. J. Phys. 65, 492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

Giacobino, E.

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, K.

K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, presented at the 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, Mass., June 4–8, 2001.

Klein, M. E.

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K. C.

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porzio, A.

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiller, S.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solimeno, S.

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, H.

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, M.

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, presented at the 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, Mass., June 4–8, 2001.

Xie, C. D.

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xue, C. Y.

Zhang, T. C.

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

A. C. Funk and M. Beck, Am. J. Phys. 65, 492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D.-H. Lee, M. E. Klein, and K.-J. Boller, Appl. Phys. B 66, 747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C. D. Xie, Appl. Phys. B 66, 755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. France (1)

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. France 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Nature 387, 472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Porzio, F. Sciarrino, A. Chiummo, M. Fiorentino, and S. Solimeno, Opt. Commun. 194, 373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, A. Faridami, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vasilyev, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H.-A. Bachor, Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).

K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, presented at the 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, Mass., June 4–8, 2001.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A Schematic of the experimental setup: PBS, polarizing beam splitter; D1, D2, detectors; LPFs, low-pass filters; G, low-noise electronic amplifier; M, mixer; Ch, channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation between the noise currents of beams 1 and 2 at 4 MHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photon-number distributions for the signal beam. A Poissonian distribution for the same mean photon n=31 is shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of difference photon-number probability distribution Pn-m of the twin-beam state of the NOPO with that for two modes in uncorrelated coherent states that have the same mean photon number.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Variances of Twin Beams and Coherent Light

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δi2=i2-i2=e/T2n2-n2=2eΔf2Δn2;
Δi2=2eΔf2n for a coherent state signal Δi2=2eΔf2η2Δn2+1-ηn for an arbitrary state signal.
SΩ=1-η/1+Ω/Γ2,

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