Abstract

We demonstrate the formation of 1+1- and 2+1-dimensional solitons in photorefractive CdZnTe:V, exploiting the intensity-resonant behavior of the space-charge field. We control the resonance optically, facilitating a 10µs soliton formation times with very low optical power.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 475 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 25, 963 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Lan, M. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. Chen, C. Anastassiou, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 24, 1145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Lan, J. A. Giordmaine, M. Segev, and D. Rytz, Opt. Lett. 27, 737 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Mainguet, Opt. Lett. 13, 657 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Opt. Lett. 21, 1333 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Uzdin, M. Segev, and G. J. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 26, 1547 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Note the difference from the screening nonlinearity which supports solitons,8 for which the free-charge concentration at illuminated regions increases.
  20. In our CdZnTe crystals, LE/KLD2≅200, where LE and LD are the drift and diffusions lengths, 1/K is taken as half the solitons’ FWHM. This indicates that the solitons form well inside the drift regime.
  21. J. Y. Moisan, N. Wolffer, O. Moine, P. Gravey, G. Martel, A. Aoudia, E. Repka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1655 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. This self-bending is much larger than that of screening solitons, as it results from the nature of the resonant nonlinearity18 and not from diffusion fields.4-6

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Moisan, N. Wolffer, O. Moine, P. Gravey, G. Martel, A. Aoudia, E. Repka, Y. Marfaing, and R. Triboulet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Agranat, A. J.

Anastassiou, C.

Aoudia, A.

Bashaw, M. C.

Bliss, D. F.

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Opt. Lett. 21, 1333 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G.

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Opt. Lett. 21, 1333 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chauvet, M.

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Opt. Lett. 21, 1333 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DelRe, E.

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, H. J.

P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giordmaine, J. A.

Gravey, P.

Hage Ali, M.

P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, S. A.

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Opt. Lett. 21, 1333 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

Lan, S.

Mainguet, B.

Marfaing, Y.

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martel, G.

Mizell, G.

Moine, O.

Moisan, J. Y.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozkul, C.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Picoli, G.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pogany, P.

P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Repka, E.

Rytz, D.

Salamo, G.

K. Kos, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 23, 1001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G. J.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tamburrini, M.

Taya, M.

Triboulet, R.

Uzdin, R.

Valley, G. C.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 943 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieux, V.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolffer, N.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Chauvet, S. A. Hawkins, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, D. F. Bliss, and G. Bryant, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, and V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

P. Pogany, H. J. Eichler, and M. Hage Ali, J. Opt. Soc. B 15, 2716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Note the difference from the screening nonlinearity which supports solitons,8 for which the free-charge concentration at illuminated regions increases.

In our CdZnTe crystals, LE/KLD2≅200, where LE and LD are the drift and diffusions lengths, 1/K is taken as half the solitons’ FWHM. This indicates that the solitons form well inside the drift regime.

This self-bending is much larger than that of screening solitons, as it results from the nature of the resonant nonlinearity18 and not from diffusion fields.4-6

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Observation of self-trapping in CZT. A 17µm FWHM 1+1D input beam (a) is self-trapped with E0=1.8 kV/cm (b). The peak intensity at the input face of the crystal is 1.5 mW/cm2. When E0=0, this beam diffracts (c) to 40 µm. A circular 15µm FWHM input beam (d) is self-trapped (e) with E0=9.4 kV/cm. The peak intensity at the input face is 3.4 mW/cm2. When E0=0, this beam diffracts (f) to 50 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Self-focusing dynamics of 1+1D (above) and 2+1D (below) beams, as a function of input intensity. With the beams width and resonance intensity fixed, the beams’ intensities are successively increased. The focusing effect increases with the intensity [(a)–(c) and (f)–(h)] until it reaches its maximum strength [(c), (h)]. Then, at higher intensities, the self-focusing effects decrease [(d), (i)] until they are nonapparent [(e), (j)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak intensity of a soliton at 0.936 µm as a function of the background intensity at 1.48 µm. The insets show the intensity of the 17µm FWHM soliton beam exiting the crystal at various intensities.

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