Abstract

Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating with an angle-dithered nonlinear-optical crystal permits measurement of the intensity and the phase of the ultrabroadband (as much as 1200 nm wide) continuum generated from microstructure optical fiber. Retrieval revealed fine-scale structure in the continuum spectrum. Simulations and single-shot spectrum measurements confirmed that the fine structure does exist on a single-shot basis but washes out when many shots are averaged.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (2)

2000 (3)

1998 (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

Coen, S.

Dudley, J. M.

Gaeta, A. L.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Hänsch, T. W.

Kimmel, M.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Ranka, J. K.

Stentz, A. J.

Trebino, R.

Windeler, R. S.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Normalized SHG phase-matching efficiency of 10µmthick BBO borate for angles ranging from 0° to 90°; (b) phase-matching angle tuning curve for SHG and SFG with an 800-nm gate pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the multishot XFROG measurement apparatus: BSs, beam splitters; μs, microstructure fiber; b-c, butt-coupling fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XFROG measurement of the microstructure-fiber continuum with an 800-nm 30-fs precharacterized reference pulse: (a) measured trace, (b) retrieved trace, (c) retrieved temporal intensity (solid curve) and phase (dashed curve), (d) retrieved spectral intensity (solid curve) and phase (dashed curve), (e) independently measured spectrum. The XFROG error was 0.012. The insets in (a) and (b) are higher-resolution sections in the traces. Both traces are 8192×8192 in dimension. SF, sum frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Entire spectrum of the continuum, averaged over 10,000 pulses. Spectral section of the continuum exposed for (a) 10,000 shots, (b) 100 shots, and (d) a single shot. (e) Numerical average of single-shot measurements taken successively; dashed and dotted curves are two single-shot spectra taken seconds apart, and the solid curve is the average of four single-shot spectra. Our measured single-shot spectra contained 2×105 photons per pixel, so shot noise was negligible in these measurements. Averaged spectra were attenuated; single-shot spectra were not.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulations: (a) theoretically generated and (b) retrieved XFROG traces. (c) Retrieved spectral intensity and phase of a pulse of a smooth super-Gaussian spectrum and cubic spectral phase; XFROG error, 0.00015. (d) Theoretically generated and (e) retrieved XFROG traces. (f) Retrieved spectral intensity and phase of a pulse with a structured XFROG error, 0.00031. (i) Average of 100 such structured traces. (j) Retrieved XFROG trace and (k) retrieved spectral intensity and phase from (i); XFROG error, 0.0027. (g), (h), (l), and (m) are higher-resolution sections in (d), (e), (i), and (j), respectively. All the traces are 1024×1024 in dimension. SF, sum frequency.

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