Abstract

We characterize the gratings induced in commercial SF57 glass by femtosecond pulses. A simple technique enables us to measure both the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index and shows that the induced grating is mainly a phase grating. An index variation of as much as 6×10-3 is reported. Then we study the diffraction efficiency of the grating with respect to the intensity of the femtosecond pulse. Permanent structures are induced above the damage threshold. Below this threshold, the grating relaxes. The long-time dynamics of the decay is studied and described by two models. The formation of transient and permanent gratings in various other glasses is observed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2001

E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, H. Delbarre, A. Hidayat, M. Douay, and P. Niay, Appl. Opt. 40, 3506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1994

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Vauhaudenarde, M. Trespidi, and R. Frey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 8 (1994).

1993

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Delbarre, H.

Douay, M.

Ekimov, A. I.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fertein, E.

Flytzanis, C.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frey, L.

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

A. Vauhaudenarde, M. Trespidi, and R. Frey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 8 (1994).

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ghanassi, M.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hidayat, A.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Hosono, H.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ito, N.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J.-M.

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maznev, A. A.

Miura, K.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

Niay, P.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Przygodzki, C.

Ricard, D.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Roosen, G.

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Trespidi, M.

A. Vauhaudenarde, M. Trespidi, and R. Frey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 8 (1994).

Vauhaudenarde, A.

A. Vauhaudenarde, M. Trespidi, and R. Frey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 8 (1994).

Villing, A.

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 10 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghanassi, M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, A. I. Ekimov, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

A. Vauhaudenarde, M. Trespidi, and R. Frey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 8 (1994).

Opt. Commun.

L. Frey, J.-M. Jonathan, A. Villing, and G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 165, 153 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Changes of the real Δn and the imaginary Δn parts of the index of refraction in SF57 glass with respect to the pump peak power. The lines are quadratic fits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to induce and display gratings in glasses. Inset, a permanent grating induced in SF57 glass above the damage threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of a grating photoinduced in SF57 glass with respect to the pump intensity. The diagonal line in the inset is a power 4 fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Formation and relaxation of the grating induced in SF57 glass for several pump intensities. The pump beam is on for 5 s. Inset, example of the evolution of the inverse of the diffracted intensity after the pump beam was blocked. The diffracted intensity is normalized by its value when the pump beam is on.

Equations (1)

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I-1=I-10sin2π/2λΔnl+sinh2π/2λΔnl×exp-3π/2λΔnl.

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