Abstract

We present a method of spectral discrimination that employs time-domain processing instead of the typical frequency-domain analysis and implement the method in a Michelson interferometer with a nonlinear mirror scan. The technique yields one analog output value per scan instead of a complete interferogram by directly filtering a measured scan with a reference function in the time domain. Such a procedure drastically reduces data-processing requirements downstream. Additionally, using prerecorded interferograms as references eliminates the need to compensate for scan nonlinearities, which broadens the field of usable components for implementation in miniaturized sensing systems. With our efficient use of known spectral signatures, we demonstrate real-time discrimination of 633- and 663-nm laser sources with a mirror scan length of 1 µm, compared with the Rayleigh criterion of 7 µm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  5. A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
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  7. P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
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  8. O. Manzardo, H. P. Herzig, C. R. Marxer, and N. F. de Rooij, Opt. Lett. 24, 1705 (1999).
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  9. H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
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  10. P. Haschberger, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 307 (1994).
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2002

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1998

D. S. Kimes and R. F. Nelson, Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Haschberger, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Sayood, Geosci. Remote Sens. Newsl. 84, 7 (1992).

Agurok, I. P.

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Avakian, A.

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bangalore, A. S.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhalotra, S. R.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Combs, R. J.

R. E. Shaffer and R. J. Combs, Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 1404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Rooij, N. F.

DeVerse, R. A.

Fateley, W. G.

Gat, N.

N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hammaker, R. M.

Harris, J. S.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haschberger, P.

Herzig, H. P.

Kimes, D. S.

D. S. Kimes and R. F. Nelson, Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, R. B.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ko, J. D.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kroutil, R. T.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kung, H. L.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansell, J. D.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manzardo, O.

Marxer, C. R.

Miller, D. A. B.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. F.

D. S. Kimes and R. F. Nelson, Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandomirsky, S.

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sayood, K.

K. Sayood, Geosci. Remote Sens. Newsl. 84, 7 (1992).

Shaffer, R. E.

Shnitser, P. I.

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Small, G. W.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Traynor, C. A.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

A. S. Bangalore, G. W. Small, R. J. Combs, R. B. Knapp, R. T. Kroutil, C. A. Traynor, and J. D. Ko, Anal. Chem. 69, 118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Geosci. Remote Sens. Newsl.

K. Sayood, Geosci. Remote Sens. Newsl. 84, 7 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. L. Kung, S. R. Bhalotra, J. D. Mansell, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Intl. J. Remote Sens.

D. S. Kimes and R. F. Nelson, Intl. J. Remote Sens. 19, 2639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

P. I. Shnitser, I. P. Agurok, S. Sandomirsky, and A. Avakian, Proc. SPIE 3717, 185 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Gat, Proc. SPIE 4056, 50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-domain output from a spectrometer (e.g., an interference function from a Michelson spectrometer) multiplied by a time-domain reference function recorded from a light source of interest and integrated over the time of one spectrometer scan (e.g., one mirror scan). This process is repeated with a second reference that corresponds to a second light source. Comparison of the resultant inner products (I.P.1, I.P.2) identifies the observed light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photocurrent from the Michelson interferometer either recorded as a reference function or routed to the inner product (I.P.) electronic circuit in real time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inner products of a 633-nm signal with a 633-nm (the two upper curves) and a 663-nm (the two lower curves) reference. Thicker curves, real-time inner products calculated in the electronic circuit. Thinner curves, theoretical simulations; the small oscillations are due to high-frequency sinusoidal components from the inner products of interference functions described in Eq. (1).

Equations (1)

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It=A21+cos2πdλ1-cos2πft+ϵ,

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