Abstract

We report for what is believed to be the first time planar waveguide formation and propagation mode reduction in Nd:YVO4 crystal, which were achieved by 3.0-MeV silicon-ion implantation followed by annealing under specific conditions. After the implantation, an enhanced refractive-index region was formed with a width of 2 µm beneath the sample surface to act as a waveguide structure. We found that there were four propagation modes for the as-implanted Nd:YVO4 waveguide, whereas after annealing at 240–360 °C for several hours the number of modes could be reduced to three, two, and one. After annealing at 400 °C for 1 h the monomode waveguide was destroyed completely, and no mode was observed in the sample.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Barbier and R. L. Hyde, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 5, p. 89.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).
  12. P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).
  14. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

2001 (2)

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Ch. Buchal, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 166–167, 743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, G. C. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Agnesi, C. Pennacchio, and V. Kubecek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, G. C. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, C. Pennacchio, and V. Kubecek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier and R. L. Hyde, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 5, p. 89.

Biesack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Buchal, Ch.

Ch. Buchal, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 166–167, 743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. X.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. K.

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

Gazecki, J.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, P. G.

A. Agnesi, G. C. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G. Q.

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R. L.

D. Barbier and R. L. Hyde, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 5, p. 89.

Johnson, C. M.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubecek, V.

A. Agnesi, C. Pennacchio, and V. Kubecek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubica, J. M.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Littmark, U.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Lu, F.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

Pennacchio, C.

A. Agnesi, C. Pennacchio, and V. Kubecek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

Reali, G. C.

A. Agnesi, G. C. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, G. K.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ridgeway, M. C.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.-Y.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B. R.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. X.

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, M.

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Q. Gu, F. Zhou, G. Zhang, and M. K. Chin, Electron. Lett. 34, 564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Agnesi, G. C. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Lett. (1)

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Lett. 87, 3199 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods B (1)

Ch. Buchal, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 166–167, 743 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, Opt. Acta 33, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Chen, H. Hu, K. M. Wang, F. Lu, B. R. Shi, F. X. Wang, Z. X. Cheng, H. C. Chen, and D. Y. Shen, Opt. Commun. 200, 179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Agnesi, C. Pennacchio, and V. Kubecek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Gazecki, J. M. Kubica, M. Zamora, G. K. Reeves, C. M. Johnson, and M. C. Ridgeway, Thin Solid Films 340, 233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

P. D. Townsend, Vacuum 51, 301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Barbier and R. L. Hyde, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 5, p. 89.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Davis, Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1996).

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index no profiles of the Si+-implanted Nd:YVO4 waveguide under four different conditions: A, as implanted; B, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (60 min); C, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (120 min); D, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (120 min) +360°C (120 min).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of ne and no on the sample surface under several conditions: O, before implantation; A, as implanted; B, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (60 min); C, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (120 min); D, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (120 min) +360°C (120 min); E, after annealing at 240 °C (60 min) +300°C (120 min) +360°C (120 min) +400°C (60 min).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Propagation Modes and Their Effective Refractive Indices As They Relate To Different Treatmenta

Equations (1)

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V=2πdλn12-n22,

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