Abstract

We have measured the spectral polarization-dependent losses of cascaded long-period fiber gratings composed of single, double, and triple identical gratings and fabricated by exposure of a UV laser beam on one side of a fiber. The measurement was made by use of the Mueller matrix method for scanning the wavelength of the incident beam. The polarization-dependent loss was dramatically increased as the number of cascaded gratings was increased. The formation of the UV-induced geometric birefringence in the fiber grating and its relationship to the fine interference fringes formed by cascading gratings are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

2000

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

Berini, P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chai, J.-X.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

Davidson, C. R.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

Feinberg, J.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, K.-M.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, C.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

Hayee, M. I.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, I. K.

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inniss, D.

Jiang, X.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Kim, Y. J.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

Kosinski, S. G.

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

B. H. Lee, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Sydney, Australia, July 1–5, 2001.

Lee, S.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

Medvedkov, O. I.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

Nishii, J.

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Paek, U.-C.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

Radic, S.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

Simova, E.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Willner, A. E.

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of 2001 Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. WT5-1.

Xie, Y.

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of 2001 Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. WT5-1.

Yan, L. S.

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of 2001 Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. WT5-1.

Yu, Q.

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of 2001 Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. WT5-1.

Zhong, Q.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. P. Agrawal and S. Radic, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Feng, J.-X. Chai, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, M. I. Hayee, S. Lee, X. Jiang, A. E. Willner, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun.

B. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, and U.-C. Paek, IEICE Trans. Commun. E84-B, 1247 (2001).

Opt. Lett.

Other

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

B. H. Lee, I. K. Hong, Y. Chung, W. T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and J. Nishii, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Chiba, Japan, July 11–14, 2000.

L. S. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, and A. E. Willner, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of 2001 Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. WT5-1.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Oslo, September 15–19, 1996.

B. H. Lee, presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference, Sydney, Australia, July 1–5, 2001.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the IQ12004B system for PDL measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission (left axis) and PDL (right axis) spectra of a single long-period fiber grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission (left axis) and PDL (right axis) spectra of a LPG pair.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission (left axis) and PDL (right axis) spectra of three cascaded LPGs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured (solid curve) and simulated (dashed curve) PDL spectra of the three-LPG sample. The spectrum of Fig. 4 was shifted to the left and the right by the same amount, giving Δλp=0.24 nm, and the absolute difference is depicted by the dashed curve.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

neffco-neffcl,pΛ=λ0,
neffco,x-neffcl,pΛ=λx,
neffco,y-neffcl,pΛ=λy,
Δλpλx-λy=neffco,x-neffco,yΛ.

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