Abstract

The nonlinear effects of amplitude jitter and ghost pulse generation, which are present in strongly dispersion-managed optical communication systems can be suppressed by alternation of the phase of the bits. A physical explanation for this effect is given that shows that with suitably chosen phase modulations the processes that give rise to the nonlinear effects will counteract each other.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Mamyshev and N. A. Mamysheva, Opt. Lett. 24, 1454 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Ablowitz and T. Hirooka, Opt. Lett. 25, 1750 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, A. Berntson, and J. Mårtensson, Opt. Lett. 26, 1227 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, M. Westlund, A. Danielsson, P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 26, 55 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ablowitz and T. Hirooka, Opt. Lett. 25, 1750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. V. Mamyshev and N. A. Mamysheva, Opt. Lett. 24, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ablowitz, M. J.

Anderson, D.

Berntson, A.

P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, A. Berntson, and J. Mårtensson, Opt. Lett. 26, 1227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, M. Westlund, A. Danielsson, P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 26, 55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Clausen, C. B.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Danielsson, A.

Djups-jöbacka, A.

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forzati, M.

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Hirooka, T.

Johannisson, P.

J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, M. Westlund, A. Danielsson, P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 26, 55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, A. Berntson, and J. Mårtensson, Opt. Lett. 26, 1227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Lisak, M.

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mamysheva, N. A.

Mårtensson, J.

J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, M. Westlund, A. Danielsson, P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, and M. Lisak, Opt. Lett. 26, 55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Johannisson, D. Anderson, A. Berntson, and J. Mårtensson, Opt. Lett. 26, 1227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R.-J. Essiambre, B. Mikkelsen, and G. Raybon, Electron. Lett. 35, 1576 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Mecozzi, C. B. Clausen, and M. Shtaif, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, A. Berntson, A. Djups-jöbacka, and P. Johannisson, “Reduction of intra-channel four-wave mixing using the alternate-phase RZ modulation format,” submitted to IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Initial amplitude and phase modulation of a bit stream. The signal pulses are chirp-free Gaussian pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Rotating (rot.) and nonrotating (non-rot.) phasors when Δϕ=0. (b) Phase shift Δϕ gives a rotation 2Δϕ. (c) Situation in a phase-shifted bit slot. The direction of rotation is changed. (d) Δϕ=π/2. All bit slots are identical.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean power of the zeros, I0, as a function of the phase shift, Δϕ (solid curve) and a fitted (dashed) curve k1+k2 cos 2Δϕ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard deviation of the ones, σ1, as a function of the phase shift, Δϕ.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phase Shift, φ, of the Contribution to the Perturbation from a Specific Source Term Depending on Whether r, s, and t are Odd or Evena

Tables Icon

Table 2 Phase Shift, φ, of the Contributions in Bit Slot 0 if All Even Bit Slots are Phase Shifted

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

iAz=β222At2-γA2A-iα2A,
iApz-β222Apt2+iα2Ap=-γAl2Al.
Q=I1-I0σ1+σ0,

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