Abstract

We present a flexible and simple method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including discrete phase shifts. The method is based on a π phase shift between the refractive-index modulation profiles induced by s and p polarization of UV light. By changing the ratio of UV intensity in the two polarizations we are able to control the modulation strength and to induce phase shifts while keeping a constant effective refractive index throughout the Bragg grating. We demonstrate strong UV-written Bragg gratings with Gaussian or sinc apodizations with spectral shapes, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.
  4. M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 64, 144201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Optiwave Corporation, IFO Gratings v. 2.0, http://www.optiwave.com .
  6. R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 64, 144201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Armes, D. J.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barcelos, S.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M. K.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 64, 144201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Laming, R. I.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plougmann, N.

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Swanton, A.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varming, P.

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Zervas, M. N.

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, Electron. Lett. 34, 800 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes, Electron. Lett. 32, 1226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 64, 144201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Optiwave Corporation, IFO Gratings v. 2.0, http://www.optiwave.com .

P. Varming, J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, M. Kristensen, and J. Hübner, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BWA5-1.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the polarization control method. Two phase-shifted refractive-index modulation profiles are generated in the fiber core by the diverging s and ppolarization fractions of the UV beam. The ratio of UV intensity in the two polarizations and hence the relative strength of the modulation profiles is adjusted by a polarizer mounted upon a computer-controlled rotation stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized fluence profiles for s and p polarizations and normalized modulation amplitude for a sinc grating and (b) corresponding polarizer angle α. The dotted curves lines at α=45° and α=-45° mark the crossover line between gratings of different phase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission and (b) reflection spectra for a 23-mm-long sinc grating written in a deuterium-loaded HNLF fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission and (b) reflection spectra for a 23-mm-long Gaussian grating written in a deuterium-loaded TrueWave fiber.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

4θdair+rfiber/nclad=Λmask,
Δnz=ηF+ηF cos2αcos2πzΛB+ϕ0,

Metrics