Abstract

We have investigated the performance of an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode for photon counting at 1550 nm in the temperature range of thermoelectric cooling. A quantum efficiency of 13.7% was obtained at -55 C°, while the dark-count probability per gate 1 ns was kept as small as 2.4×10-5. The developed single-photon detector would yield a 104.4-km fiber-optic quantum key distribution in the ideal condition.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, presented at the International Conference on Computer Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, December, 1984.
  2. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).
  6. D. Bethune and W. Risk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 340 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Lacaita, P. A. Francese, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, Appl. Opt. 33, 6902 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Lacaita, F. Zappa, S. Cova, and P. Lovati, Appl. Opt. 35, 2986 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Bourennane, F. Gibson, A. Karlsson, A. Hening, P. Jonsson, T. Tegaye, D. Ljunggren, and E. Sundberg, Opt. Express 4, 383 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1  40, 200 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, Appl. Opt. 35, 1956 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 54, 97 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1  40, 200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

D. Bethune and W. Risk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Townsend, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1992

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bechman-Pasquinucci, H.

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, presented at the International Conference on Computer Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, December, 1984.

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bethune, D.

D. Bethune and W. Risk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, M.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, presented at the International Conference on Computer Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, December, 1984.

Campbell, J. C.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Francese, P. A.

Gautier, J.-D.

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

Gibson, F.

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hening, A.

Hughes, R.

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Jonsson, P.

Karlsson, A.

Lacaita, A.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ljunggren, D.

Lovati, P.

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 54, 97 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, G.

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Peterson, C.

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W.

D. Bethune and W. Risk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Samori, C.

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundberg, E.

Tegaye, T.

Townsend, P.

P. Townsend, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1  40, 200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wall, T.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1  40, 200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, Appl. Phys. B 67, 743 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and J. C. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 20, 596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. Bethune and W. Risk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptol.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, J. Cryptol. 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

G. Ribordy, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hughes, G. Morgan, and C. Peterson, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 533 (2000).

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1  40, 200 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

P. Townsend, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 54, 97 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, presented at the International Conference on Computer Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, December, 1984.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dark-count probability per gate at -72 C° versus gate-off time. The excess bias voltage was 3 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of dark-count probability per gate to quantum efficiency versus temperature. The repetition frequency of the gate pulse was 10 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dark-count probability per gate at -55 C° versus quantum efficiency. Filled squares, excess bias voltage of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 V from bottom to top.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QBER=e=PoptPphot+PdarkPphot+2PdarkPopt+PdarkPphot=Popt+Pdarkμηtηd,
Popt=1-Vc2,
ηt=10-Lfl+Lr/10,
l=-10LflogPdark1-2ee-1-Vc/2μηd10-Lr/10.

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