Abstract

A highly efficient 1.3µm molecular iodine Raman laser is demonstrated. Multiwavelength output powers of 600 mW and photon-conversion efficiencies of 78% are demonstrated for a 532-nm pump source. Single-wavelength output powers of 480 mW and photon-conversion efficiencies of 67% are also realized. A simple thermal lensing model is used to optimize the pump and Stokes mode sizes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Brewer and J. Tellinghuisen, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3929 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Roos, J. K. Brasseur, and J. L. Carlsten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 758 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989), pp. 34–108.
  11. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.3.
  12. B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. The quartz cell was manufactured by Allen Scientific Glass, Boulder, Colorado. It was filled with 99.997% pure iodine crystals, and an initial background pressure of 1 µTorr.
  14. P. D. Hale and G. W. Day, Appl. Opt. 27, 5146 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 211–224.

2000

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, J. K. Brasseur, and J. L. Carlsten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 758 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

1983

B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

L. Brewer and J. Tellinghuisen, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3929 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Apolonskii, A.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, M.

M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, J. K.

Brewer, L.

L. Brewer and J. Tellinghuisen, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3929 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

Day, G. W.

Eberly, J. H.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 211–224.

Friede, D.

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hale, P. D.

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, U.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, W. D.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. R.

D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kildal, H.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Klug, M.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, D. C.

D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, J. C.

M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Marx, B. R.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 211–224.

Newtein, M.

B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O’Shaughnessy, S. M.

D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, B. N.

B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rabinowitz, P.

B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Roos, P. A.

Schulze, K.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.3.

Stephan, K. H.

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tellinghuisen, J.

L. Brewer and J. Tellinghuisen, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3929 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, E.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyen, J. T.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989), pp. 34–108.

Vigue, J.

M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, H. Kildal, and M. D. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

L. Brewer and J. Tellinghuisen, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3929 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Boyer, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5428 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

B. Wellegehausen, K. H. Stephan, D. Friede, and H. Welling, Opt. Commun. 23, 157 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, Opt. Commun. 184, 215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and B. R. Marx, Opt. Commun. 41, 195 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Jones, S. M. O’Shaughnessy, and D. C. Laine, Opt. Commun. 131, 303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

B. N. Perry, P. Rabinowitz, and M. Newtein, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1989 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

The quartz cell was manufactured by Allen Scientific Glass, Boulder, Colorado. It was filled with 99.997% pure iodine crystals, and an initial background pressure of 1 µTorr.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 211–224.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989), pp. 34–108.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental diagram of I2 laser: PDs, photodiodes; OC, output coupler; BF, birefringent filter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; OMA, optical multichannel analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multimode output power as a function of pump power for 2 and 0.78-mm mode diameters. The solid lines are linear fits to the data near threshold, and the dashed line is a fit with Eq. (4).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power versus pump power for multimode and single-mode operation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Photon-Conversion Efficienciesa

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

GR=αlΠpAeff=8παΠpbsbpλpλskpbs+ksbpkpbp+ksbs1/2×tan-1lbpbskpbp+ksbskpbs+ksbp1/2.
nr,Πp=n01+Πpr22L2,
GThermalΠp=GRApApTΠpAsAsTΠp1/2,
ΠSs=ϵλSλPΠTHRESδOUTGThermalsΠTHRESGThermalΠTHRESδOUT+δINT×s-δOUTδOUT+δINT.

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