Abstract

The fabrication of planar waveguides by a constant-current thermal poling procedure in multicomponent glasses rich in alkali or alkaline earth ions is described. Near the anode, the dc electric field applied to the substrate separates the mobile cations into regions according to their mobility. Each region presents a different refractive index, allowing a waveguide to be formed. This method produces waveguides with an index increase greater than 10-2 in soda-lime glass with no external ion source, and the waveguides are buried beneath the substrate surface without an additional step.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).
  2. W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2418 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1998

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Achete, C. A.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).

Carvalho, I. C. S.

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Freire, F. L.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, F. C.

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giacometti, J. A.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leal Ferreira, G. F.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lepienski, C. M.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lesche, B.

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prohaska, J. D.

J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Garcia, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and B. Lesche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, and C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Met. Mater. Processes

J. S. Aitchison, J. D. Prohaska, and E. M. Vogel, Met. Mater. Processes 8, 277 (1997).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modal effective indices versus poling time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concentration distributions of mobile ions under the anode after poling with 20 µA (a) for 120 min in soda-lime glass at 200 °C and (b) for 90 min in BK7 at 300 °C. The mode intensity profiles of the resulting waveguides are also shown.

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