Abstract

We present a novel time-domain experimental approach to the study of the dynamics of surface electromagnetic wave propagation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. A surface plasmon polariton is launched by ultrafast laser pulses and propagates into a photonic crystal, the dynamics of which are measured by an interferometric cross-correlation method. Plasmon photonic stopgaps are characterized by a single measurement. The dispersion around the stopgaps is determined with a series of angle-resolved measurements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
  2. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
  4. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  5. I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  6. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  7. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
  8. A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).
  9. S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).
  10. V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095 (2000).
  16. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095 (2000).

1999 (3)

Y.-H. Liau, A. N. Unterreiner, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, Appl. Opt. 38, 7386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

1998 (2)

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

1996 (3)

W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).

1968 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arnett, D. C.

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[PubMed]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, J. J.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. M.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095 (2000).

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Erlig, H.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Feinberg, J.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Feldstein, M.

W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).

Fetterman, H. R.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Grubsky, V.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Hamm, R. N.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, A.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Liau, Y.-H.

Lyon, L. A.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095 (2000).

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Requicha, A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[PubMed]

Scherer, N. F.

Y.-H. Liau, A. N. Unterreiner, D. C. Arnett, and N. F. Scherer, Appl. Opt. 38, 7386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).

Sprik, R.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

Starodubov, D. S.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Tarhan, I. I.

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Unterreiner, A. N.

Vos, W. L.

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Wang, W.

W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).

Watson, G. H.

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Yablonovitch, E.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, M. Feldstein, and N. F. Scherer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 573 (1996).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095 (2000).

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, E. Yablonovitch, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 20, 17 (1999).

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

A. Imhof, W. L. Vos, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2942 (1999).

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[PubMed]

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Optical microscopy image of the plasmon photonic crystal. The sample, consisting of a monolayer of 2.1µm-diameter latex spheres, covers only the right-hand portion of the field of view and forms a straight boundary. Image area, 44 µm by 60 µm. B–D, Bragg scattering of surface plasmons by the lattice structure. The plasmon is launched at the position indicated by the dashed ovals and propagates into the crystal indicated by the arrow A. B, laser beam focused to the smooth film area; C, the edge of the lattice is away from the launching position of the plasmon but still within the propagation length; D, the laser beam is focused onto the perfect-lattice region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Representative pump-modulated lock-in amplifier demodulated interferometric signals measured from A, the perfect-lattice region and B, the metal film. C, Simultaneously measured reference interferogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral amplitude and spectral phase of the interferogram obtained from A, the plasmonic photonic crystal, B, the metal film, and C, the reference. Solid curves, truncated spectral phase or wave vector of ultrafast laser pulses measured from the sample or reference. Dashed curves, spectral amplitudes.

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