Abstract

We demonstrate a method for introducing and dynamically tuning birefringence in a microstructured optical fiber. Waveguide asymmetry in the fiber is obtained by selective filling of air holes with polymer, and tunability is achieved by temperature tuning of the polymer’s index. The fiber is tapered such that the mode field expands into the cladding and efficiently overlaps the polymer that has been infused into the air holes, ensuring enhanced tunability and low splice loss. Experimental results are compared with numerical simulations made with the beam propagation method and confirm birefringence tuning that corresponds to a phase change of 6π for a 1-cm length of fiber.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 9, 698 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Steel and J. R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 26, 229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (6)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 9, 698 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Steel and J. R. M. Osgood, Opt. Lett. 26, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, Opt. Lett. 26, 488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

Astle, H. W.

P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, A. J.

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chandalia, J. K.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cozens, J. R.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 9, 698 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

Hale, A.

Hansen, J. J. R.

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. V.

P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S. G.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Libori, E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Mogilevstev, D.

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morris, D. G.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osgood, J. R. M.

Payne, D. N.

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Westbrook, P. S.

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, Opt. Express 9, 698 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Cozens, and D. G. Morris, Electron. Lett. 15, 380 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 477 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosinski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the MOF showing (a) the symmetry mode field in the inner cladding and (b) the distorted mode field in the inner cladding with two opposite holes filled with index-matched polymer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of all-fiber polarization controller based on tapered MOF with polymer infused in the waist.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated (curve) and measured (filled squares) birefringence as functions of temperature and refractive index of a polymer that fills two opposite holes of the fiber. The calculated mode fields are also shown (below the curve) for different values of the polymer index. The mode field retains its symmetric shape when the polymer index is low and becomes asymmetric at high index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the tapered microstructured fiber (top left) with all six holes filled and (top right) with only two opposite holes filled with polymer. The corresponding Poincaré sphere measurements are shown for both symmetric and asymmetric cases.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ=βx-βyL=2πnx-nyL/λ=2πBL/λ,
LB=2πβx-βy=λB,

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