Abstract

We have imaged the spatial distribution of macular carotenoid pigments (MPs) in the human retina, employing Raman spectroscopy. Using excised human eyecups as initial test samples and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow-bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon–carbon double-bond stretch vibrations of the molecules. Preliminary Raman images reveal significant differences in the MPs of different samples in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial variation. This technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of MPs in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Schalch, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and F. M. Barker, in Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, A. Taylor, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).
  2. D. M. Snodderly, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448 S (1995).
  3. J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. R. Hammond, Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, and B. E. Schefrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492 (2000).
  7. S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).
  8. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, Vision Res. 26, 313 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).
  11. P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. van Norren and J. van de Kraats, Vision Res. 29, 1825 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).
  14. I. V. Emakov, R. W. McClane, W. Gellermann, and P. S. Bernstein, Opt. Lett. 26, 202 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  16. Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, and B. E. Schefrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492 (2000).

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

1998 (1)

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448 S (1995).

1989 (2)

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and J. van de Kraats, Vision Res. 29, 1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, Vision Res. 26, 313 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barker, F. M.

W. Schalch, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and F. M. Barker, in Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, A. Taylor, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Beausencourt, E.

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

Berendshot, T. T. J. M.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

Bernstein, P. S.

I. V. Emakov, R. W. McClane, W. Gellermann, and P. S. Bernstein, Opt. Lett. 26, 202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Bieber, M. L.

Boulton, M. E.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Burns, S. A.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

Carden, D.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Caruso-Avery, M.

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492 (2000).

Dayhaw-Barker, P.

W. Schalch, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and F. M. Barker, in Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, A. Taylor, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).

Delori, F. C.

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. A.

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

Emakov, I. V.

Ermakov, I. V.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Ermakova, M. R.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Fishman, G. A.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gellermann, W.

I. V. Emakov, R. W. McClane, W. Gellermann, and P. S. Bernstein, Opt. Lett. 26, 202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Goger, D. G.

Goldbohm, R. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

Hammond, B. R.

Henson, D. B.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kloepping, W. A. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

Koh, H.-H.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Koyama, Y.

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McClane, R. W.

I. V. Emakov, R. W. McClane, W. Gellermann, and P. S. Bernstein, Opt. Lett. 26, 202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Murray, I. J.

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

Nakata, M.

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schalch, W.

W. Schalch, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and F. M. Barker, in Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, A. Taylor, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).

Schefrin, B. E.

Snodderly, D. M.

Takatsuka, I.

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tasumi, M.

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, Vision Res. 26, 313 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van de Kraats, J.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

D. van Norren and J. van de Kraats, Vision Res. 29, 1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Norel, J.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

van Norren, D.

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

D. van Norren and J. van de Kraats, Vision Res. 29, 1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, Vision Res. 26, 313 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weiter, J. J.

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, and B. E. Schefrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wooten,

Zhao, D.-Y.

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1)

D. M. Snodderly, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448 S (1995).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (4)

T. T. J. M. Berendshot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Kloepping, J. van de Kraats, J. Van Norel, and D. van Norren, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322 (2000).

A. A. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394 (1998).

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492 (2000).

S. Beatty, I. J. Murray, D. B. Henson, D. Carden, H.-H. Koh, and M. E. Boulton, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 439–446 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Koyama, I. Takatsuka, M. Nakata, and M. Tasumi, J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Vision Res. (4)

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, Vision Res. 29, 663 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and J. van de Kraats, Vision Res. 29, 1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, Vision Res. 26, 313 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D.-Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, “In vivo Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

W. Schalch, P. Dayhaw-Barker, and F. M. Barker, in Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye, A. Taylor, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for Raman imaging. See text for definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) False-color, en face Raman image of MP distribution in the macular region of an excised human eyecup. (b) Corresponding surface plot emphasizing the topology of the MP distribution. Note the central hole in the MP distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line scans of MP distributions obtained by plotting Raman intensities along a line running through the center of the MP distributions and emphasizing differences in the shape and width of individual MP distributions. (a) Line scan corresponding to the MP distribution of the second eyecup. (b) Line scan of the MP distribution of Fig. 2 (first eyecup).

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