Abstract

A new technique for improving the signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast in images recorded with a confocal scanning laser system is presented. The method is based on the incorporation of a polarimeter into the setup. After the spatially resolved Mueller matrix of a sample was calculated, images for incident light with different states of polarization were reconstructed, and both the best and the worst images were computed. In both the microscope and the opthalmoscope modes, the best images are better than the originals. In contrast, the worst images are poorer. This technique may be useful in different fields such as confocal microscopy and retinal imaging.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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2001 (2)

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, J. S. Tyo, and N. Engheta, Opt. Lett. 20, 608 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Artal, P.

Bille, J. F.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burk, R. O. W.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bustamente, C.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 56–59.

Chipman, R. A.

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sect. 22.1.

Cui, C.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 56–59.

Damaskinos, S.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F. C.

Dixon, A. E.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

Duttagupta, S. P.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Egan, W. G.

Engheta, N.

Fauchet, P. M.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J. P.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gang, Y.

Goelz, S.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.

Hughes, G. W.

Iglesias, I.

Jaronski, J.

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jerrard, H. G.

Jiao, S.

Johnson, W. R.

Katz, J. E.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kellis, K. A.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Maestre, M. F.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mickols, W.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Muth, K.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 56–59.

Pelz, B.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, E. N.

Reiter, K.

Ribes, A. C.

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A. J.

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 56–59.

Rowe, M. P.

Tinoco, I.

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tyo, J. S.

Wang, L. V.

Webb, R. H.

Weinred, R. N.

Weschenmoser, C.

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, V. S.

Williams, D. R.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Pelz, C. Weschenmoser, S. Goelz, J. P. Fischer, R. O. W. Burk, and J. F. Bille, Proc. SPIE 2930, 92 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. C. Ribes, S. Damaskinos, A. E. Dixon, K. A. Kellis, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, Prog. Surf. Sci. 50, 295 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. Mickols, I. Tinoco, J. E. Katz, M. F. Maestre, and C. Bustamente, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 12, 2228 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Sect. 22.1.

J. W. Goodman, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 9–75.

J. B. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Muth, M. C. W. Campbell, A. J. Roorda, and C. Cui, in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 56–59.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified schematic diagram of the experimental setup. P1, P2, linear horizontal polarizers; QWP1, QWP2, rotating quarter-wave plates. Both microscope and ophthalmoscope configurations are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elements of the first row of the spatially resolved Mueller matrix for (a) U.S. Air Force chart 4.4 mm2 and (b) retinal region (2°) in subject JB. The gray-level code is shown at the right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results for the target in Fig. 2: (a) worst reconstructed image, (b) original image, (c) best reconstructed image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Worst reconstructed image, (b) original image, and (c) best reconstructed image for the fundus image in Fig. 2(b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SDmn=M¯AnMSCN2MMSCN1SGm,
I11I21I31I41I12I22I32I42I13I23I33I43I14I24I34I44=MAMOUT.
M=MSCN2-1MOUTMG-1MSCN1-1,
IOUTS1OUTS2OUTS3OUT=M00M01M02M03M10M11M12M13M20M21M22M23M30M31M32M33×1cos2χcos2φsin2χcos2φsin2φ=MSIN,
SN=SNR-1=stdvIoutmeanIout.

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