Abstract

We demonstrate the propagation of a light pulse undergoing refraction and total refraction inside a glass block as well as diffraction at a grating. Observation of a frameless, continuous motion picture of the light propagation is possible by recording of hologram with a picosecond pulsed laser. It is shown that the direction of the pulse changes as a result of refraction, the pulse’s speed decreases inside a glass block, and the pulse travels a zigzag path by total refraction. The pulse fronts of the diffracted light propagating parallel to the grating surface are also demonstrated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 11–14.
  2. M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 47–51.
  3. M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 401–428.
  4. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964).
  5. D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).
  6. N. Abramson, Appl. Opt. 22, 215 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Pettersson, H. Bergstrom, and N. Abramson, Appl. Opt. 28, 766 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Abramson, Appl. Opt. 30, 1242 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Nilsson and T. E. Carlson, Opt. Eng. 39, 224 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

2000

B. Nilsson and T. E. Carlson, Opt. Eng. 39, 224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

1983

1981

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 11–14.

1979

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 47–51.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 401–428.

1969

D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).

1964

Abramson, N.

Bartelt, H. O.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, H.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 401–428.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 47–51.

Carlson, T. E.

B. Nilsson and T. E. Carlson, Opt. Eng. 39, 224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Case, S. K.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Denisyuk, Yu. N.

D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 11–14.

Leith, E. N.

Lohmann, A. W.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, B.

B. Nilsson and T. E. Carlson, Opt. Eng. 39, 224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, S. G.

Smirnov, A. G.

D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).

Staselko, D. I.

D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).

Upatnieks, J.

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 11–14.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 47–51.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 401–428.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

H. O. Bartelt, S. K. Case, and A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 30, 13 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. Nilsson and T. E. Carlson, Opt. Eng. 39, 224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

D. I. Staselko, Yu. N. Denisyuk, and A. G. Smirnov, Opt. Spectrosc. 26, 413 (1969).

Other

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 11–14.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 47–51.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), pp. 401–428.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic recording arrangement of a hologram for visualizing light propagation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refraction of an ultrashort light pulse by a glass block. The pulse in air is incident on the glass block from the top right. The direction of the refracted light in the glass is determined by the law of refraction. The directions of the incident and transmitted pulses are parallel to each other. The wave front of the pulse is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The velocity of the pulse in the glass block becomes less than in air, and the length of the pulse is compressed in the glass block.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Propagation of an ultrashort light pulse refracted by a glass block. The pulse travels from the top right to the bottom left. (a)–(c) The pulse is in air and has not yet reached the glass block. (d)–(e), (h)–(i) The pulse has partly passed the boundary between the air and the glass block. (f), (g) The pulse is entirely in the glass block. (j)–(k) The pulse has left the glass block and is traveling away from it.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Propagation of an ultrashort light pulse by total reflection inside a glass block. (a) The pulse comes near to the side of the glass block from the bottom right but has not yet reached it. (b) The pulse has entered the glass block. (c)–(h) The pulse travels a zigzag path inside the glass block as a result of total reflection. The pulse reflected from the side of the glass block travels toward the top right as seen in (b)–(e).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Propagation of an ultrashort light pulse diffracted by a diffraction grating. (a) The pulse travels toward the grating. (b)–(d) The pulse diffracted by the grating travels away from the grating. The incident pulse is diffracted by the grating into the first and second orders, together with the zeroth order.

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